teacher appreciation

‘Every child needs a champion’: Meet the teachers who inspired some of the country’s education leaders

To mark Teacher Appreciation Week, Chalkbeat went in search of the educators who changed the lives of the people you read about in our stories.

We asked a handful of influential figures to tell us about the teacher whose action, lesson, or presence made a lasting impact on them. The stories they shared — about the teacher who trusted a future chancellor with a beloved guitar, the one who offered advanced books and a lesson in being “cool,” and another who used their city’s history of black activism to reach students — are worth a read.

Here’s what they told us.

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Mandy Manning, 2018 National Teacher of the Year

Living in a single parent household is really busy all of the time. So my teachers were extremely, extremely important to me, because they were the adults in my life who were supporting me when I was going through those more difficult years. In particular, I had this teacher in middle school. We had just moved to California, and I didn’t have any friends, I didn’t know anybody, I was starting at a brand-new school. And it was seventh grade, so you can imagine.

So here I was, a brand new student, walking into a new school in a new city and a new state. The first day, I had several teachers, which was also something that was new to me. I had gone to a regular sixth-grade class in an elementary school, with one teacher. I remember distinctly walking into my English class with Mrs. Baker. Mrs. Baker was a teacher of color. And Mrs. Baker was so kind. As soon as I walked in the door, I could tell just by her facial expression and her smile that she cared about me.

I was just this new kid. She welcomed me in, and she completely transformed so many things about how I thought about myself. Because of her, I was moved up to honors English the next year, and I also participated in mock trial. I actually got to be one of the lawyers in mock trial. She instilled this confidence in me that I don’t know if I would have had. I fell in love with English and kept going. But the thing I really carried with me was the belief that I could try new things and I could accomplish things I never thought possible. And then becoming an educator, I carry that lesson with me. I welcome all of my kids with an open heart and open mind. My goal is always to help them see how amazing they are.

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A. Robert Gregory, Newark Public Schools interim superintendent

Every child needs a champion; someone who believes in them and encourages them to love learning while igniting their curiosity. For me, in my early years, that person was none other than Ms. Pat Longordo, my first-grade teacher at Harriet Tubman Elementary School.

Ms. Longordo greeted her students daily with a warm hug. She never missed a day of work, and moreover, she allowed you to make mistakes and used them as teachable moments. Her warm heart, passion and commitment are attributes every educator should possess. She helped me personally fall in love with reading and poetry at a young age, and taught me the importance and power of words. She dared to care for me and my classmates when so many were losing hope, and reminded us daily that we would one day change America.

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Richard Carranza, New York City schools chancellor

Dr. Alfredo Valenzuela, who taught me guitar in the third, fourth grade, was one of those teachers who always made me feel like I was his only student.

My dad was a guitar player — a really good guitar player, but worked all the time. I couldn’t touch his guitar. When we would practice the guitar at school, [Dr. V] would say, take the guitar home! But I was afraid, my parents were afraid, that if we broke it they didn’t have the money to replace it.

I remember Dr. V actually came to my home and brought the guitar and spoke to my mom. He told her, look, this is what they’re for. I have lots of ‘em. If they break, don’t worry about it. But they’re not going to break, because your sons are very responsible young men. I remember that number one, the teacher came to my home, two, he called me a very responsible young man, and three, I had a guitar to practice at home. I would say that was transformational for me.

To this day, I stay in touch with him. He’s gone on to teach music to many, many, many other students. He was just one of those people who I thought, if I can be like Dr. V, I’ll be OK.

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Rich Buery, chief of policy and public affairs for KIPP

In my family, education came first. My mother taught public high school for 33 years in East New York, Brooklyn, where I grew up. Former students constantly approached her to thank her. Because of her, I grew up thinking teachers were rock stars. My middle school homeroom teacher Cheryl Virginia confirmed it.

I attended I.S. 383, a public middle school in Bushwick. Like East New York, Bushwick experienced high poverty and crime, and poor educational outcomes. I.S. 383 served gifted and talented black and brown students from these and other low-income Brooklyn neighborhoods. Ms. Virginia created an environment that was comfortable, lively, and nurturing. She taught us we could do anything, and that “to whom much is given, much is required.” She introduced me to books that were far above my reading level, and made me believe I could tackle them.

She encouraged me to be my best self. I remember acting out once, trying to be “cool” to impress a classmate. She explained to me in a blunt but loving way that the way to be cool was to be myself, not to try to be like someone else. Her respect for young people helped me respect myself.

I was fortunate to have Ms. Virginia and other teachers in my life who inspired me to spend my career fighting for high quality public education. Today, as I support the work of great teachers at KIPP schools nationwide, Ms. Virginia remains a beacon.

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State Rep. Janet Buckner, vice chair of the Colorado House Education Committee

I will never forget my 1st grade teacher, Mrs. Johnson. Even to this day I can recall every characteristic about her. Where I grew up, I was the only black child in my class, and unfortunately black students were not allowed in kindergarten at the time. Despite this educational setback, Mrs. Johnson saw the potential in me at an early age and instilled values regarding the importance of reading and comprehension.

This led me to practice every night by reading books to my grandmother. Just knowing that I could accomplish this fundamental elementary task as a child created confidence and ownership with regard to my education.

To this day, I credit Mrs. Johnson with my academic success and my acceptance of people who look different from me. Educators have the unique ability to inspire and create lifelong impressions on students. I cannot overstate how important it was for me to have Mrs. Johnson teach me that I was no different from the other students in my class, and that I could accomplish any goal that I set my young mind to. I will always value her kindness and dedication to teaching me the fundamentals of reading.

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Randi Weingarten, head of the American Federation of Teachers

A few weeks before I became the national president of the AFT, I asked several of my former teachers, including Mr. Swift, Mr. Dillon, Ms. Gaffney, and of course, my mom, to join me at our convention. I wanted them all there with me to share in the honor of becoming the leader of a teacher’s union, because I’m here thanks to the support of so many other teachers and support personnel with whom I worked over the years, and so many kids who taught me as much as I taught them.

Mr. Swift taught me the value of hard work. Mr. Dillon taught me to teach for the stars. Miss Gaffney taught me confidence. And my mom taught me to repair the world. Teachers everywhere do that every day for millions of kids, and for that, I thank them.

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Chris Rogers (left) and Ms. Simpkins (right)

Christopher Rogers, lead director at JustMaybeCo and a Chalkbeat Reader Advisory Board member

Ms. Simpkins was my Hi-Q advisor, our version of the academic decathlon. But in truth, she was and is so much more. When I was in high school in the mid-2000s, she was part of the number of black teachers who grew up in Chester, Pennsylvania. What I loved about Ms. Simpkins was her commitment to teaching us the critical skills we needed to navigate a world that is not set up for many of us, mostly low-income black and brown children, to succeed (dare I say survive).

She had a poster on her classroom wall of a famous Martin Luther King quote: “Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education.” She would remind us that King spent time in our hometown, attending Crozer Seminary and studying under local pastors. It wasn’t just that King was here. It was that there was something that everyday Chester folks offered King that allowed him to fully commit to his “drum major for justice” instinct.

This righteous belief in our potential to be able to contribute to something greater than ourselves was modeled in her actions as a community historian and arts advocate. She has collected priceless artifacts of the black experience in Chester, exploring the way black folks have made and remade the city through various struggles against racism and political corruption.

Ms. Simpkins, while being retired from the school district, has yet to really … retire. She’s currently working to rehab the historic YWCA building in our Overtown section of the city as a place where young people and families can gather to learn about the history of the city and collaborate in various forms of art-making and community-building activities.

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Bror Saxberg, ‎vice president for learning science at the ‎Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

My handwriting, as many of my current and past colleagues will attest, has never been a reason to bring me into a project. It’s been a challenge stretching back to the start of schooling – it required a near-divine intervention to let me move from first to second grade because of it.

Several teachers over time have made heroic interventions to help me keep moving forward in spite of my dysgraphia. The one I’ll call out now is Dr. Judy Lightfoot, one of my high school English teachers. Years after leaving high school, I discovered that the teachers at my high school held a faculty meeting to discuss “What to do with Bror’s writing – it’s so bad!”

Apparently, and unsurprisingly, even though I tried to type everything I could, many teachers at the high school struggled through my handwriting, to the point where they felt they just couldn’t evaluate my work to give me feedback, or in some cases tell if I knew what I was doing. Hence the discussion.

Dr. Lightfoot stepped in at the meeting to stop it. Apparently, she said something to the effect, “This is ridiculous – we should not be talking about this. I read his writing fine. If any of you have any issues with his writing, just bring it to me, and I will read it for you.”

She did more than support me as her student – she offered to spend her own time with other teachers, to help me succeed despite a problem that was impossible for me to solve. The meeting (or at least that part of the meeting) was over, and I only heard about her intervention with her colleagues many years later. Because of Dr. Lightfoot and other teachers who similarly problem-solved on how to help me succeed, often without me realizing it, I kept on learning, through many years, many degrees. Looking back, it’s their work that now inspires me to pay it forward through my work to find ways to better support great educators to help imperfect learners like me — and all of us.

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Jennifer McCormick speaks during a 2016 campaign event.

Jennifer McCormick, Indiana schools chief

My fourth-grade teacher Mrs. Montgomery was instrumental in really setting a tone in the classroom. Literally we all thought we were the favorite student — but now that I look back on it, we really were. She was at Westwood Elementary, our tiny little elementary school out in a cornfield.

I lived out in the country, and we had a long bus ride to school. I remember I’d had a rough morning at home trying to get myself together. Missing the bus was not an option for me because my parents worked. When I showed up at school, I was a flat out mess.

I had these bobby pins that had big frogs on the ends. I remember her taking the time to help me fix my hair and help me re-group at my desk and saying, “You’re going to have a good day.”

I remember that day so clearly. She came in and really saved the day. It’s not just about math, spelling or social studies — it was beyond that. It was probably two minutes, not about academics, just about me as a person and my well-being.

As a teacher, I remembered that time. I had kids who would come in all frazzled. I remember that two minutes of my time could impact 12 hours of their day.

She was at my wedding, and when I became state superintendent, we talked. She was masterful at the relationships piece. Now, having the opportunity to go into a lot of classrooms, that is a skill. I think I continue to hold that close because any time that kids just feel like you care about them, it just goes a lot further than if they think you really don’t care about them. The power of a great educator really impacts you forever.

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Thanks to our partners at Yoobi for supporting our Teacher Appreciation campaign.

Colorado Votes 2018

Amendment 73: Understanding the tax increase for education on your Colorado ballot

PHOTO: Erica Meltzer/Chalkbeat
Thousands of Colorado teachers protested for more education funding in April. What will voters say in November?

Colorado voters face an important education decision this November: whether to approve a major statewide tax increase for schools. This request represents the third time in recent years that Colorado voters have been asked to put more money into schools.

The last two times, they gave a resounding no. Amendment 73 comes on the heels of teacher protests here and around the nation that have raised awareness of low pay and other unmet classroom needs.

Proponents of the measure say Colorado schools can’t keep doing more with less and need new revenue to do right by students. Opponents say that raising taxes will hurt the state’s economic prosperity without necessarily improving student outcomes.

Here’s what you need to know to make a decision:

What does Amendment 73 do?

This measure would create a graduated income tax for people earning more than $150,000 a year and would raise the state corporate tax rate. It also would change the assessment rate — the portion of your property value that is taxed — for commercial and residential property.

Altogether, these changes are projected to raise an additional $1.6 billion a year for preschool through 12th-grade education. That’s in addition to the roughly $9.7 billion in federal, state, and local money that Colorado will spend this year on schools.

The amendment raises the base amount Colorado is required to spend on each student, and it also dedicates money to preschool spots, full-day kindergarten, students with disabilities, those learning English, and those identified as gifted and talented.

Why is this on the ballot?

Colorado’s Taxpayer’s Bill of Rights requires that all tax increases be approved by voters. As for this particular tax increase, Colorado funds its schools below the national average, and since the Great Recession, state lawmakers have diverted to other areas billions of dollars constitutionally due to education.

Proponents of the measure believe the only way to adequately fund Colorado schools is to tap into an additional revenue source, like these tax increases.

Opponents counter that administrative spending has grown faster than student population and teacher salaries, and that the state and school districts could free up money for classrooms by setting new priorities.

I see amendments and propositions on my ballot. What’s the difference?

Propositions become laws and can be changed by the legislature. Amendments become part of the state constitution and can only be changed by another vote of the people. Amendments need the approval of 55 percent of voters to pass, a higher bar than propositions that only require a simple majority.

How will the money be spent? What guarantees do we have that it will reach the classroom?

Amendment 73 requires that new money “supplement and not supplant” existing funding. That means the legislature cannot redirect current spending on education and replace it with this new funding source. The amendment says the legislature should adopt a new formula for distributing money to districts that takes into account student and district characteristics, but it doesn’t lay out exactly what that should look like.

In the meantime, Amendment 73 describes specific uses for $866 million in new revenue:

  • Base spending per student will go up from $6,769 to $7,300, a 7.8 percent increase
  • Funding for full-day kindergarten. Right now, districts get a little more than half a student’s worth of funding for each kindergarten student.
  • An 8.3 percent increase for preschoool, bringing the total to $131 million
  • A 6.8 percent increase for special education, bringing the total to $296.1 million
  • An 80 percent increase for gifted and talented programs, bringing the total to $22.5 million
  • A 93 percent increase for English language learners, bringing the total to $41.6 million

The extra money that districts currently receive for students with disabilities, those learning English and those identified as gifted accounts for a fraction of the additional cost of educating them, particularly in the case of students with more significant disabilities. Districts have to use tracking codes to account for this money and ensure it goes to its intended purpose. In some districts, additional money might translate into better services for these students, while others might use the additional dedicated funding to free up other money.

That leaves $738.6 million that can be spent on public education as determined by the legislature. Once that money lands in school district coffers, they have broad discretion over how to spend it. This is by design and part of an effort to get buy-in from around the state. Many school boards have passed non-binding resolutions promising to spend the money on teacher pay, more mental health supports for students, and lower class sizes.

In turn, opponents have criticized the lack of specificity as a blank check that won’t necessarily increase teacher salaries or improve student outcomes.

A recent analysis from EdChoice found that since 1992, teacher salaries in Colorado had fallen even as per-student funding and the number of administrators had increased. Colorado Department of Education records show that instructional staff — teachers, counselors, speech language pathologists, school nurses — increased by 14 percent between 2006 and 2016 while administrative staff increased by 34 percent. School administrators argue these positions are necessary to support the work that teachers do and keep districts in compliance with a host of new state and federal regulations. In smaller districts, administrators often wear multiple hats. When we ask teachers about this issue, some of them share the concern that too much money gets spent on central administration, even as they also believe schools need more money overall

You can look up how much your district spends here.

What does it mean when people say Colorado schools are ‘underfunded’? Compared to what? How underfunded?

There are several different ways to look at this. The National Education Association, the country’s largest teachers union, ranks Colorado 28th in per pupil spending when state, local, and federal money is combined and puts Colorado about $758 per student below the national average. Education Week does a more complex ranking that takes into account regional cost differences and puts Colorado nearly $2,800 below the national average. Colorado teacher salaries are among the least competitive in the nation, making it hard to recruit and retain educators. More than 100 of Colorado’s 178 school districts operate on four-day weeks.

Back in 2000, after previous years of budget cuts, Colorado voters passed a constitutional amendment that requires school funding to increase by population plus inflation. But starting with the Great Recession, Colorado lawmakers have not allocated all the money required by that amendment. Over the past 10 years, Colorado schools have missed out on $7.5 billion the law requires them to receive. The courts have upheld this budget maneuver. Money from Amendment 73 could not be reallocated during the next downturn, protecting schools but potentially creating other budget problems for the state.

Colorado also gets low marks on equity. Colorado spends much less money on education than most states with similar levels of wealth and economic activity. Per-student spending varies widely around the state, with rich districts often getting more state money than poor ones. Some districts have convinced voters to approve local property tax increases, while other have not — or have such low tax bases that voters would need to take on large increases to generate much benefit. The additional funding from these local tax increases varies from $32 to $5,024 per student.

Amendment 73 wouldn’t change these structural problems with school funding. It would give state lawmakers more money with which to level the playing field. Right now, sending more money to some districts would require reducing funding to others, creating a political minefield.

Will I pay more in income taxes if Amendment 73 passes?

People who earn up to $150,000 a year will keep paying the same 4.63 percent state income tax rate they do now. Those earning more will pay a sliding increase starting at 5 percent for income from $150,001 to $200,000 up to 8.25 percent for income over $500,000. Someone with taxable income of $200,000 would pay an extra $185 a year, while someone with $1 million in taxable income would pay an extra $24,395, according to a fiscal analysis by the state.

The increases will affect about 8 percent of individual and joint income tax filers. Amendment 73 does not include a provision to adjust the income threshold for inflation, so it’s possible that more taxpayers will pay these higher rates in the future.

This change would generate most of the new revenue under Amendment 73.

What’s the effect on corporate taxes?

Amendment 73 would raise the corporate income tax rate from 4.63 percent to 6 percent. You can see how that compares to other states’ corporate income tax rates here. The average corporate income taxpayer would owe an additional $14,139, according to state fiscal analysts.

Would Amendment 73 raise my property taxes?

This is a complicated question. Amendment 73 does not raise property tax rates anywhere in the state. But if it passes, residential property owners will pay more in 2019 than they otherwise would have, while owners of non-residential property will pay less.

Amendment 73 fixes the assessment rate at 7 percent for residential and 24 percent for non-residential property. That’s lower than it is now, but other constitutional provisions would have pushed the residential rate even lower in 2019. 

Exactly how much more or less you pay will depend on your property value, real estate trends in your community, and local tax rates.

This represents a partial fix to a complicated fiscal problem that has bedeviled Colorado lawmakers and the administrators of rural taxing entities — school districts, fire protection districts, and others — for years.

In Colorado, your property is assessed at close to market value, but your local tax rate only applies to a portion of that value. That’s the assessment rate. Another constitutional provision known as the Gallagher Amendment ensures that non-residential property owners always pay a larger share of property taxes than homeowners. Since 1982, when the Gallagher Amendment was approved by voters, property values along Colorado’s developed Front Range have skyrocketed, putting the assessment ratios between residential and other property seriously out of whack. Those ratios apply statewide, and many rural communities have seen their already sparse tax base hollowed out.

In the case of schools, that’s meant the state government has had to backfill more and more money that used to be generated by local taxes. Amendment 73 includes a provision to hold the assessment rates steady just for schools for two reasons. One is that it provides property tax relief to ranchers and farmers, which the measure’s backers hope bolsters support in parts of the state that are traditionally more hostile to tax increases. The other is that it ensures the new tax revenue generated by the amendment doesn’t just backfill an ever-deepening hole in rural districts.

Residential assessment rates will continue to drop for other taxing entities, creating an even more complex system, unless the state succeeds in a more comprehensive Gallagher fix.

Don’t schools get a lot of marijuana money already?

The bulk of marijuana tax revenue for education goes to a program that helps schools pay for buildings and construction repairs. Districts apply and compete for grant money from the program, and in most cases have to put up some portion of the project’s cost. 

Starting this year, 12.59 percent of marijuana tax revenue is also set aside for the regular education budget. That’s about $20 million a year at current rates. Marijuana money is also set aside for various grant programs including one that schools can use to help pay for health professionals such as counselors or nurses. As the state collects more marijuana revenue, the amounts set aside for the grant programs has increased.

However, the marijuana money available to schools represents a tiny fraction of total education spending, and most of it can’t be spent on basic needs like teacher salaries or classroom materials.

 

Why not Michigan?

As Michigan’s poorest 4-year-olds wait for classroom seats, free pre-K for all kids seems elusive

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
All New York City four year-olds — including these kids who attend school is in the city's education department headquarters — are guaranteed a spot in a city-funded pre-K. In Michigan, far fewer students have access to free preschool.

Michigan is the home to America’s most famous study on the benefits of early childhood education.

But when it comes to providing free prekindergarten for all children, other states and cities are leading the way.

Vermont, Florida, Washington, and the District of Columbia have public programs for all 4-year-olds, regardless of income. Seven more states have greatly expanded their pre-K programs, too, including Wisconsin, where free voluntary pre-K is in the state’s 1848 constitution.

But not Michigan. Not yet, at least.

The pioneering Perry Preschool Study began in Ypsilanti in 1962 and followed 123 study participants starting at age 3 through the age of 40. Among the study’s  findings: Those who went to pre-K were more likely to graduate from high school and less likely to repeat grades. They were also less likely to use drugs or commit crimes.

As they grew older, they were more likely to be employed and to have stable homes, savings accounts, significantly higher incomes, and report good relations with their families.

Skills such as cooperative play lay the groundwork for children to get along with others. In addition, learning to use fine motor skills and mastering shapes, colors, numbers, and the alphabet, contribute to future growth.

Further research has underscored the worth of pre-K, making it a rare realm of bipartisan support. In fact, funding for early childhood education has risen under the past three governors.

“I’ve been around long enough to see Democrats and Republicans in office, and early childhood education continues to be on the radar as a positive,” said Lena Montgomery, director of the Wayne County branch of the Great Start Readiness Program, a state funded initiative for 4-year-olds from low-income families.

But even though the governor’s own 21st Century Education Commission recommended that Michigan expand pre-K with $390 million in new investment, he chose instead to further study the impact of Great Start. In his most recent budget, he allocated $300,000 to do that research, and kept spending for Great Start flat at $245.6 million.

Momentum toward providing publicly funded pre-K, often called universal preschool, has been slowed by cost, teacher shortages, and family resistance, advocates say. They also note that there is no incentive for different institutions to pool their money to pay for a more comprehensive pre-K program in the state.  

Other states and cities have navigated similar challenges. But Michigan families face a patchwork of options. They may keep young children at home, pay for private childcare or pre-K, or, if they meet income or disability requirements, they can enroll them in Great Start or federally funded Head Start. Both are designed to support vulnerable children, including families with low-incomes.

But there aren’t enough seats, even for every child in need. Great Start’s Montgomery said she has 27 programs with qualified families on wait lists. It’s common, she said, for policymakers to say they support children. But some families are still falling into the gaps because more money is needed, she said.

About 133,000 Michigan children are not enrolled in any early childhood program.

Half of Wayne County’s 3- and 4-year-olds are enrolled in various pre-K programs, said Iheoma Iruka of Highscope, though she added that “we can’t vouch for the quality of these programs.”

The education plan of Gretchen Whitmer, the Democratic nominee for governor, advocates for a universal program that expands Great Start until all 4-year-olds are eligible, similar to what the 21st Century Education Commission recommended. It would be paid for, according to her campaign staff, with anticipated increases in the School Aid Fund, which is mostly made up of sales, income, and property taxes. It would also use tax revenue from, among other things, the marijuana ballot initiative that’s expected to pass in November. Tax hikes shouldn’t be necessary, her staff said.

Bill Schuette, the Republican nominee, has an education plan that emphasizes third-grade literacy over pre-K. It mentions need-based transportation scholarships for preschoolers, and he said in a recent interview that universal pre-K was an option that he’d consider.

Hope Starts Here, the $50 million initiative created by the Kellogg and Kresge foundations to improve Detroit’s early childhood systems, has a number of suggestions to pay for universal pre-K. Among them: a dedicated tax proposal, a local sales tax on alcohol, coordinated philanthropic and corporate giving, and leveraging all federal grant money.

States and cities around the nation have experimented with other strategies. Georgia tied pre-K funding to the state lottery. New York City’s new universal program for all 3- and 4-year-olds comes from a mix of city, state and federal funding. Oklahoma, a pioneer in the field, discovered that school districts with half-day kindergartens were receiving state money meant for full-day programs. Lawmakers reformed the state aid formula so that those resources went into pre-K. (The districts had been spending the extra money on sports.)

Others have expanded access by combining different sources of money. North Carolina integrated pre-K with its K-12 schools and contributed part of the Title 1 money that’s allocated to school districts. Chicago is moving toward universal pre-K with a mix of state and district budget increases, and block grants. Washington, D.C. blends Head Start and local funding into its education formula.

A pilot model for blended funding in Michigan can be found in Flint, where the state’s only Educare program is based on the grounds of a former elementary school. The national Educare Early Learning Network draws from multiple revenue sources, including federal, state, and philanthropic dollars.

But regardless of where the money is coming from, opportunities to expand pre-K programs may be missed because of the statewide teacher shortage. In addition,  salaries are not as high as they are in K-12 schools. The median salary for Head Start teachers is $27,613, and for lead Great Start teachers, $37,440, according to a statewide advocacy organization.

To recruit and retain more teachers at all levels, including pre-K,  a new public-private initiative called Teach 313 launched in Detroit in August. Other places facing shortages or high turnover for its preschool teachers have turned to Teach for America to fill gaps, or provided scholarships for early childhood educators to obtain degrees that would raise their wages.

But before Michigan can explore other strategies and expand into universal pre-K, it needs to make the program it already has available to more families.

If you ask Montgomery from Great Start about her wish list, it begins with providing pre-K to all the children who are sitting on waitlists.

“It would be wonderful to to say to parents, ‘We have a spot for your child,’” Montgomery said. “ ‘You don’t have to wait for someone to drop out or leave.’ It would be wonderful to say to the people who want to run programs, or to expand their programs in their communities, ‘We have the funds for you set up and run a high quality program.’ ”