In the Classroom

Metro Nashville Schools moves to integrated math curriculum

Algebra class soon will be a thing of the past in Nashville — sort of.

Beginning next school year, Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools will start to replace the traditional high school math subjects of Algebra 1, Geometry and Algebra 2 with three levels of “integrated math,” district officials announced Wednesday.

Under integrated math pathways, students learn a blend of concepts that are intended to help students make connections across the fields and gradually deepen their understanding and skills.

“Rather than teaching in silos where mathematical concepts are separated into subjects like algebra and geometry, integrated math builds a progression of skills and concepts from across subjects over the course of three years,” the news release stated.

District officials believe the time is right to switch because the Common Core standards, which Tennessee uses for math and English, are now fully implemented, new statewide assessments will be rolled out next year, and the district is adopting new math textbooks.

The Common Core State Standards allow for both traditional and integrated math courses, as does the Tennessee Department of Education. Putnam, Bradley, Warren and Cheatham counties are among districts that have made the change.

Georgia, New York, North Carolina, Utah and West Virginia use integrated math statewide. The switch has not always gone smoothly, and parents and teachers in some states and districts have pushed back, citing a lack of teacher training for the new curriculum and concern that a non-traditional approach will leave students unprepared for college math.

Have you taught in a school that uses or used integrated math? What did you think of it? Let us know in the comments below.

Talent office

With the alarm sounded statewide over shortages, Chicago forges ahead with a teacher experiment

PHOTO: Getty Images

Katrina Johnson was working as a special education classroom assistant in a Greater Grand Crossing school when she received an email several months ago with an intriguing proposal. Chicago Public Schools was seeking applicants for a pilot program that, in two years, would earn her full-fledged teacher status and a master’s degree. 

But there was a hitch. Johnson, who’s 41, would have to juggle graduate-level courses while teaching in a classroom four days a week under a mentor teacher. And she’d be picked out of a pool of applicants to train in one of several high-poverty, “opportunity” schools — places where fewer teachers apply, and educators come and go at rates higher than the district average.

Undeterred, she put in an application. So did about 200 others for 26 positions. And in the end, CPS selected Johnson for the test run of a teacher residency pilot it plans to scale in conjunction with National Louis University and Relay Chicago’s Graduate School of Education. The latter has developed similar programs in charter schools.

Teacher residencies are the shiny new thing in education, with programs up and running in at least a dozen states. But in Illinois, where education advocates say the teacher shortage has become dire, residencies have the potential to address a host of problems, from filling critical vacancies in special education to building an on-ramp for career changers and community members who have deep ties to their neighborhood schools.  

“I thought, I can’t pass this up,” said Johnson, who grew up in a family where you went either into education or the family funeral business. Johnson did neither, choosing finance and only later hearing the call of the classroom.

For career changers like her, the teaching profession can be difficult to crack despite shortages in Chicago and rural areas downstate. A sober report called Teach Illinois, shared this week with the Illinois State Board of Education, stresses that relying on traditional teacher preparation programs to crank out annual batches of freshfaced hopefuls is not enough: The statewide percentage of candidates completing teacher prep programs declined by half from 2000 to 2016.

And while school enrollment statewide is dipping, the number of teachers is declining at an even steeper rate, leaving thousands of vacancies even as students return this fall. When school started last week, 4 percent of the positions in Chicago were unfilled compared with slightly more, 5 percent, at the start of 2017, according to a district spokesman.

Like other districts, Chicago struggles to fill vacancies in special education and bilingual instruction. It also is challenged to find and retain diverse candidates. The residency pilot presents an opportunity there, too. Of the initial 26 Chicago residents, 20 identify as persons of color, according to CPS.

Matt Lyons, CPS’ chief talent officer, said the first cohort drew primarily from paraprofessionals, special-education assistants, and other people who’ve been working in Chicago schools; only a handful came from the community. “There was far more interest among our current employees than we anticipated,” he said.

But as the program grows, he expects it could draw more broadly from the communities around the district’s highest-need schools — another strategy that education experts are hopeful can quell turnover in high-poverty districts.

“Let’s think about how school districts have typically acquired talent,” said Kent Fischer, the communications director for the National Center for Teaching Residencies, which is based in Chicago. “They put out an online notice. Go to college and job fairs. Collect resumes that come in and sift through them. The residency model flips that and puts the school district in charge of creating its own talent pipeline.”

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Chicago has big plans for its teacher residency pilot, which so far works this way: Residents start master’s-level courses over the summer, then apprentice in classrooms the first year alongside a master teacher. They teach Monday through Thursday and attend grad courses on Fridays and in some evenings, depending on the program. The second year, they teach on a provisional license and finish their coursework and specialty endorsements to earn the master’s.

The first year of the pilot has no strings. But for the 2019-20 class (for which applications are currently open), residents must agree to stay with the district for two years.

“The goal is to grow the program to 60 then to 80 then to 100 in three years,” said Lyons, whose pilot group is currently concentrated in 14 Chicago schools.

Fischer, from the national center, points to early research that shows retention rates above 80 percent among grads from residency programs, compared with closer to half from traditional programs. That stat is welcome news to talent officers like Lyons. “When we looked at the data of the 50 hardest-to-staff schools, they experienced two times as much turnover and were two times as likely to start the school year with vacancies” than the district as a whole, he said.

Residencies, he acknowledged, are but one strategy to address the problem. The district is hiring earlier than usual at its 50 opportunity schools, staffing them with teacher coaches, and building an exclusive professional development program for staff.

Despite all the potential, it’s too early to definitively call residency programs a categorical success. They are costly to establish, and costly to maintain. There’s also conflicting research about how adequately they prepare teachers.

Chicago pays each participant an initial stipend of $35,000, but that’s not enough to cover living expenses plus tuition. There are grants that can chip away at the cost for those who qualify, but some participants have to take out loans to fund tuition.

PHOTO: Courtesy of Yesenia Francois
Chicago teacher resident Yesenia Francois

The stipend doesn’t fully cover Yesenia Francois’ tuition at National Louis, but she’s still “forever grateful.” A resident this year in a bilingual first-grade classroom at Marvin Camras Children’s Engineering School in Belmont-Cragin, Francois, 37, gets a discounted rate at NLU, she says, and she’s on a three-part payment plan.

A former paraprofessional at a North Side magnet school, she’s fine with that — she stresses the opportunity to fast-track her career, boost her earning potential, and finally get the master’s degree she’s been trying to earn for a decade, while practically having a job guaranteed on the other side. Her son has special needs, and the responsibility of caring for him has twice derailed her education. This time, it feels different, she says.

“I’m like a sponge,” she said. “As a paraprofessional, I supported diverse learners, but there was a general-education teacher who laid the foundation. As a resident, I’m working with a mentor and starting from scratch. I’m building the lessons and adding in these layers. I have ownership.”

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Unlike other cities that have relied solely on philanthropy to foot the bill, Lyons said Chicago’s program is designed to be sustainable, with a portion coming from CPS in combination with a federal grant and a small group of philanthropies. “We’re cognizant that we are building something,” he said, “and we want to be intentional about it.”

The other crucial ingredient is cooperation from a traditional teacher prep program, one aspect of the residency model that could limit adoption by districts in, say, more rural areas that don’t have access to colleges.

Chicago split its pilot group into two, with bilingual teachers attending classes at National Louis University, which is building something similar in East St. Louis, and special education teachers going through Relay Chicago.

Janet Lorch, the resident program director at National Louis, thought carefully about how to refashion her general curriculum to fit into summers and Fridays, when resident teachers were available for classes. She stresses building off actual experiences — one assignment, for example, requires residents to organize a family engagement event at the school. She also places high importance on coaching mentor teachers.

“Instead of a traditional (teacher prep) supervisor going in and saying something, like, you need to smile more, we go in and work with the mentor teacher so there is recursive feedback role. There’s a core practice of modeling — we spend time talking to mentors about that.”

Robert Muller, the dean of the College of Education at National Louis, said professors want to guard against burnout. After all, the teacher hopefuls can end up fried by the prospect of the dueling demands of graduate school and their day jobs. That’s where a four-day program design — four days in the CPS classrooms, with Friday as a day at NLU — appears to ease the pressure.

“It’s the design here that is powerful. It’s practice, theory, practice, theory. In some ways, what we do with residencies could inform our more traditional program.”

In fact, it’s Fridays that Yesenia Francois looks forward to — and not just because TGIF. She says her cohort, which started its classes over the summer, has formed an intense bond that extends to chat sessions midweek over group texts. “We’ll share if we have a successful lesson or an experience with a book or video,” she said. “It’s like an extended family.”

Recently, one NLU resident heard about an organization that was giving away classroom supplies. That resident shared it with Francois and the others, and the request snowballed. Just like that, the residents were able to do something good for a district that’s investing in them.

‘It takes a lot of intentionality’ for this Indiana online school teacher to get to know students

PHOTO: Tuan Tran / Getty Images
Young girl sitting in front of laptop

Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask educators who’ve been recognized for their work how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in the series here.

Even though Lacy Spears teaches at an online school, much of her work takes place off-line.

She keeps a meticulous planner to track not just online classes and meetings with students, but also in-person events and meetings, phone calls to families, and professional development opportunities.

“There are a lot of moving pieces in the daily life of an online educator,” she said.

Spears is a seventh- and eighth-grade reading interventionist at the Insight School of Indiana, a statewide virtual charter school that is part of the Hoosier Academies network.

Spears, who was recently named one of 68 finalists for 2019 Indiana Teacher of the Year, talked to Chalkbeat about how she works with her students, and how teaching at an online school has changed her perspective on school choice.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Was there a moment when you decided to become a teacher?

Like so many other educators, I fell in love with school and education thanks to a wonderful teacher I had when I was a student. My fifth-grade teacher, Mrs. Kim Ferguson, really treated me like an individual and helped me learn how to play to my strengths. She gave me more leadership roles in the classroom, encouraged my love of writing, and made a huge effort to connect with me. Mrs. Ferguson even let me stay with her after school every day to help organize her classroom. Her guidance and the relationship she cultivated with me really led me to the path of becoming a teacher.

How do you get to know your students?

It takes a lot of intentionality to get to know students, especially in an online school. With this in mind, I call each of my students and their families at the beginning of the year. I like to introduce myself, make sure they feel ready for the school year, and see how I can help them have a successful start, particularly if they’re new to online learning. Within the first few weeks, I ask students to create a vision board, and I work with them to craft a short-term and long-term goal list for the school year. I keep this dialogue up throughout the year and talk to all my families at least once per month. I also hold student-led conferences at least every quarter to take a closer look at student progress and talk about each student’s goals and how I can best support them.

Additionally, I ask my students to submit interest and reading surveys, which I use to select materials and activities for the class. For example, a lot of my students last year really liked music. So, to help them practice their reading skills I found articles about their favorite artists to help pique their interest. I also played music and used song lyrics to analyze literary elements such as themes and main ideas. Knowing what they’re interested in helps me keep them focused on learning.

Although my classes take place online, I try my best to see my students in person as much as possible. Insight School of Indiana hosts events across the state to help students connect with their peers in their communities. I love to attend these events and help lead several school activities. For example, I serve as the advisor for our school’s chapter of the National Junior Honor Society and manage our school-based food pantry. These are all wonderful opportunities to get to know my students and their families outside of the online classroom.

Lastly, I always try to devote some class time to helping students get to know each other. A few minutes before class begins, I like to invite them to share something about themselves via their webcams. I learn so much more about my students when I see them connect with and support each other in the safe learning environment of our online platform.

Tell us about a favorite lesson to teach. Where did the idea come from?

Lesson planning is one of my favorite parts of teaching. I love the creativity that it allows. I also welcome the opportunity to design lessons that support me in providing a personalized education for each student. I especially love to help them design their own lesson plans, which allows them to take on the role of teacher. The objective is to design a lesson that explains a concept to their peers. Doing this activity helps students master content, keeps them motivated, and helps them retain more information.

To guide them through the process, I first encourage students to use four steps: topic selection, brainstorming lesson elements, designing assessment criteria, and planning and delivery. Students use class time to design their lessons and collaborate with one of their peers to receive feedback. Afterward, they teach their lesson to the class.

The first time I did this activity, I had never seen my students so engaged! Providing opportunities for peer feedback enhances their understanding, and students benefit from the advice and observations of their peers prior to presenting their final projects. Students also become experts on their researched concepts and are proud to teach other students about the new information they learn. They take ownership over their education, reflect on the learning process, collaborate to improve, and practice public speaking skills.

What’s something happening in the community that affects what goes on inside your class?

More and more, I think we are seeing kids coming to school with worries and troubles from their home lives. So many students are struggling to have their basic needs met. They don’t have enough food, clean clothes, reliable transportation, or a steady roof over their heads. It is challenging to focus on school when you have an empty stomach and haven’t slept. Our school has tried to meet some of those needs through a variety of support programs, including the school’s food pantry in Indianapolis. We work with our families to provide access to clothing, toiletries, and other necessities throughout the year.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.

When I first started teaching, I assumed that when parents didn’t answer the phone when I called home, or didn’t sign their children’s permission slips, or didn’t seem very present, that they must not value education. As I got to know my families, though, I realized that wasn’t the case.

One of my first students sticks out in my mind. His mother had passed away, his dad worked multiple jobs to keep food on their table, and my student was home alone most of the time after school. Feeling frustrated one day with this student’s lack of progress, I asked him what I might do to help him stay motivated and to get him back on track. He mentioned that since his dad was usually working, his grandma was often the only adult he had in his home life. He gave me her phone number, and we called her together. I realized through this conversation, and subsequent calls, that this family absolutely valued education. They just needed food on their table more immediately than they needed to get back to me.

Since then, I am very careful never to judge a family or make assumptions before getting to know them. Sometimes the perspective and the circumstance of a family is just different from your own, or from the majority of your students. Everyone has other things going on in their lives, but it doesn’t mean that they don’t care or that they aren’t doing everything they can for their children.

What part of your job is most difficult?

I think the most difficult part of my job is striking a balance between positive academic outcomes and taking the time to connect with my students on a personal level. It can be easy to get so focused on testing and data that you leave out time to know your students — to listen to them and help them not only master skills and content, but also learn how to build positive relationships, solve problems, and communicate. Teachers aren’t just responsible for academic success. We play an integral role in helping students become well-rounded adults. It can be a challenge to make sure each student has what they need outside of school to succeed in class, but I’m proud to be a part of a learning community at Insight School of Indiana that provides a host of support resources to our students and their families, including our food pantry, college and career planning support, remediation programs, and help with accessing social services.

What was your biggest misconception that you initially brought to teaching?

The biggest misconception that I had is that the best school for a student is the school they are assigned by their district. I bought into a lot of the criticisms of school choice when I first became a teacher. I’ll admit that most of the uncertainty I held came more from misinformation than actual experience or facts. Since becoming a teacher at an online charter school, I’ve really seen the benefits that school choice can have for children and families. We have so many students at Insight School of Indiana who are much more successful and feel more secure than they did in their locally-assigned program.

Learning is a personal journey, and while many students thrive in a traditional setting, that’s not the case for everyone. So many students benefit from school choice, and students enroll in online school for a variety of reasons. Whether they are advanced learners or need additional support, are looking for a safe and bullying-free environment, or need to balance academic goals with extracurricular pursuits or medical needs, Insight School of Indiana offers an education they wouldn’t otherwise have access to. The online platform gives our students a public education option that meets their unique needs, and it allows them to set and work towards their goals regardless of their circumstances or previous experiences. Our personalized learning approach definitely helps put students on a path to success.

What are you reading for enjoyment?

As a reading teacher, I gravitate towards things I can talk about with my students. Right now, I’m re-reading The Dark Artifices series by Cassandra Clare. The final book in the series is supposed to come out later this year, and I can’t wait!

What’s the best advice you’ve received about teaching?

Never hold grudges. Students must come to school each day with a clean slate from the day before. They need to be free to make mistakes, to learn from them, and to still feel loved and valued along the way.