Speaking Up

How teachers are like opera singers: everything depends on a clear voice

PHOTO: Tajuana Cheshier/Chalkbeat TN
Second-grade teacher Katelyn Woodard uses a wireless microphone and amplifier to project her voice during class on Jan. 13, 2015, at Cornerstone Preparatory School in Memphis.

When Memphis teacher Katelyn Woodard first noticed her voice was hoarse in 2013, she assumed the condition was temporary.

After all, it was only weeks into her school year at Cornerstone Preparatory School, and the second-grade teacher knew that the early weeks usually are the most vocally challenging.

“I did not go to a doctor for a while because I was trying to convince myself that it would go away,” she recalled.

But by December, when a friend threw her a karaoke birthday party and she could not participate, Woodard realized her vocal condition was serious. “That’s when it really hit me that this is real,” she said.

Woodard is not alone among educators.

“When we think of professional voice users, people always think of singers, actors or entertainers. But teachers are high on that list,” said Kimberly Vinson, an assistant professor of otolaryngology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s Bill Wilkerson Center in Nashville.

Teachers spend hours each day talking, often using a loud, projected voice. As with singers, actors or professional speakers, the voice is a critical tool for teachers. The difference, however, is that most teachers have received little to no training about how to use or care for their voices. In fact, many teachers assume that a hoarse or tired voice is normal—and certainly not something to complain about.

“When you look at all the most common voice disorders, teachers have more voice problems than any other profession,” said Amanda Gillespie, an assistant professor of otolaryngology at the University of Pittsburgh. “A lot of teachers think hoarseness is part of their job. But hoarseness is never normal.”

Occupational hazard

Research indicates that teachers are at high risk for voice disorders.

How teachers can care for their voices
• Before the school day starts, do a vocal warm-up, such as buzzing your lips. See video below
• Hydrate! Drink lots of water and, if your classroom or house is dry, use a humidifier.
• Don’t talk over students who are not listening.
• Remember that hoarseness is not normal. If you are regularly hoarse by the end of the day or week, see a doctor, ideally a laryngologist or voice specialist.
• Listen to your voice. If your voice is tired, try to take a break. Don’t try to power through.
• Get adequate sleep.
• Avoid germs that can cause viruses. Wash your hands frequently.
• Notice sudden changes in your voice. A sudden change can signal a serious vocal health issue.

A teacher’s intense day-to-day schedule can be taxing on the voice. Speech therapists recommend vocal breaks—stretches of quiet—throughout the day. But even when they’re not providing classroom instruction, teachers often are using their voices—for instance, for bus or lunch duty.

Especially in winter, schools can be a haven for dry air, which can dry out vocal folds and put strain on the voice. And the demands of daily instructional schedules can make it challenging for teachers to stay hydrated by drinking enough water.

One study showed that teachers were more likely to miss work due to voice problems than were other professionals.

Female teachers are more likely to develop problems than their male counterparts, due partly to human physiology. Their vocal cords hit each other twice as many times per second, which means they’re more likely to develop calluses or other problems.

Some educational specialty areas or environments also can tax the voice—for instance, physical education, music, drama or chemistry, where loud equipment or large rooms may make it harder for teachers to be heard.

Student behavior is another factor. “A lot of vocal health has to do with classroom management,” said Juliana Litts, an instructor and vocal therapist at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. “I understand that you teach a bunch of first-graders and they’re rowdy, but you can’t talk over them.”

But students also suffer when a teacher’s voice is injured. When lessons are presented with a hoarse or raspy voice, students may find it harder to process the information, according to a yet-unpublished study from researchers at Towson University.

“You’d hope it’d make teachers and administrators sit up and say, ‘Hey, we should really pay attention,’” said Gillespie.

How schools can help
• Arrange a teacher workshop or training session on vocal health.
• Provide amplification equipment for teachers, especially in classrooms that have significant ambient noise such as music and physical education.
• Create schedules that allow breaks for teachers to rest their voices, ideally spread throughout the day.

Despite the risks, teachers receive little training on vocal health.

“Nobody tells teachers, ‘OK, so this is a really good way to use your voice in your classroom.’ So teachers go by how they’ve always talked. And a lot of times that gets them into trouble,” Litts said.

By the time Litts sees a teacher for vocal therapy, that teacher often has reached the point where he or she is basically unable to teach. Some teachers wait so long to seek help that they need surgery, she said, while others enter administration or leave the profession altogether.

Equipping teachers

After realizing that her vocal issues weren’t going away, Woodard was at first disheartened. The strain was affecting her both professionally and personally. “My voice is incredibly important to me in many ways,” she said. “I sing at my church, I sing a lot in my life. And I teach, and my voice is my most valuable tool as a teacher.”

At her elementary school, Woodard had used her voice to instruct her students but also to captivate them with humorous voices or songs. On some days, though, it had become physically painful just to talk. “What I remember as a teacher is going through stages of fear, down to stages of what almost felt like grief,” she said.

Her vocation at risk, Woodard saw several doctors. One diagnosed partial vocal paralysis; another identified vocal nodules, which is a more temporary condition caused by growths on both vocal cords. “It’s incredibly difficult to find anyone who knows anything about serious voice issues,” she said. “And it’s hard to get your insurance to help you find the right people and help you get the things you need to get better.”

A rest from teaching the following summer helped. This school year, Woodard is using a microphone and amplifier system, which she said has allowed her voice to stay stronger over the course of the week. A local vocal therapist is working with her, too.

Juliana Litts, a vocal therapist, demonstrates morning exercises teachers can do to warm up their voices. If you’re self-conscious, she says, do them in your car or a private area.

“It’s clear that it’s strain-related, so they believe that therapy will be really helpful,” Woodard said. “But it’s going to take a lot of effort. I’m going to have to work consistently to train how I use [my voice] in my day-to-day life.”

As for other educators struggling with vocal health, a little knowledge and preparation can go a long way toward identifying symptoms and addressing the condition.

“If you start having trouble with your voice, we always recommend a vocal evaluation,” Vinson said. “A lot of time it’s nothing serious; it’s simply getting them into healthy practices.”

Teachers, have you experienced vocal strain? Tell us about your remedies/best practices in the comments below.

School safety

Hiring more security officers in Memphis after school shootings could have unintended consequences

PHOTO: Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post/Getty Images

Tennessee’s largest district, Shelby County Schools, is slated to add more school resource officers under the proposed budget for next school year.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson earmarked $2 million to hire 30 school resource officers in addition to the 98 already in some of its 150-plus schools. The school board is scheduled to vote on the budget Tuesday.

But an increase in law enforcement officers could have unintended consequences.

A new state law that bans local governments from refusing to cooperate with federal immigration officials could put school resource officers in an awkward position.

Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen recently reminded school personnel they are not obligated to release student information regarding immigration status. School resource officers employed by police or sheriff’s departments, however, do not answer to school districts. Shelby County Schools is still reviewing the law, but school board members have previously gone on the record emphasizing their commitment to protecting undocumented students.

“Right now we are just trying to get a better understanding of the law and the impact that it may have,” said Natalia Powers, a district spokeswoman.

Also, incidents of excessive force and racial bias toward black students have cropped up in recent years. Two white Memphis officers were fired in 2013 after hitting a black student and wrestling her to the ground because she was “yelling and cussing” on school grounds. And mothers of four elementary school students recently filed a lawsuit against a Murfreesboro officer who arrested them at school in 2016 for failing to break up a fight that occurred off-campus.

Just how common those incidents are in Memphis is unclear. In response to Chalkbeat’s query for the number and type of complaints in the last two school years, Shelby County Schools said it “does not have any documents responsive to this request.”

Currently, 38 school resource officers are sheriff’s deputies, and the rest are security officers hired by Shelby County Schools. The officers respond and work to prevent criminal activity in all high schools and middle schools, Hopson said. The 30 additional officers would augment staffing at some schools and for the first time, branch out to some elementary schools. Hopson said those decisions will be based on crime rates in surrounding neighborhoods and school incidents.

Hopson’s initial recommendation for more school resource officers was in response to the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, that killed 17 people and sparked a wave of student activism on school safety, including in Memphis.

Gov. Bill Haslam’s recent $30 million budget boost would allow school districts across Tennessee to hire more law enforcement officers or improve building security. Measures to arm some teachers with guns or outlaw certain types of guns have fallen flat.

For more on the role and history of school resource officers in Tennessee, read our five things to know.

Sheriff’s deputies and district security officers meet weekly, said Capt. Dallas Lavergne of the Shelby County Sheriff’s Office. When the Memphis Police Department pulled their officers out of school buildings following the merger of city and county school systems, the county Sheriff’s Office replaced them with deputies.

All deputy recruits go through school resource officer training, and those who are assigned to schools get additional annual training. In a 2013 review of police academies across the nation, Tennessee was cited as the only state that had specific training for officers deployed to schools.

call out

Our readers had a lot to say in 2017. Make your voice heard in 2018.

PHOTO: Chris Hill/Whitney Achievement School
Teacher Carl Schneider walks children home in 2015 as part of the after-school walking program at Whitney Achievement Elementary School in Memphis. This photograph went viral and inspired a First Person reflection from Schneider in 2017.

Last year, some of our most popular pieces came from readers who told their stories in a series that we call First Person.

For instance, Carl Schneider wrote about the 2015 viral photograph that showed him walking his students home from school in a low-income neighborhood of Memphis. His perspective on what got lost in the shuffle continues to draw thousands of readers.

First Person is also a platform to influence policy. Recent high school graduate Anisah Karim described the pressure she felt to apply to 100 colleges in the quest for millions of dollars in scholarships. Because of her piece, the school board in Memphis is reviewing the so-called “million-dollar scholar” culture at some high schools.

Do you have a story to tell or a point to make? In 2018, we want to give an even greater voice to students, parents, teachers, administrators, advocates and others who are trying to improve public education in Tennessee. We’re looking for essays of 500 to 750 words grounded in personal experience.

Whether your piece is finished or you just have an idea to discuss, drop a line to Community Editor Caroline Bauman at cbauman@chalkbeat.org.

But first, check out these top First Person pieces from Tennesseans in 2017:

My high school told me to apply to 100 colleges — and I almost lost myself in the process

“A counselor never tried to determine what the absolute best school for me would be. I wasted a lot of time, money and resources trying to figure that out. And I almost lost myself in the process.” —Anisah Karim     

Why I’m not anxious about where my kids go to school — but do worry about the segregation that surrounds us

“In fact, it will be a good thing for my boys to learn alongside children who are different from them in many ways — that is one advantage they will have that I did not, attending parochial schools in a lily-white suburb.” —Mary Jo Cramb

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

“Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.” —Grace Tatter

I went viral for walking my students home from school in Memphis. Here’s what got lost in the shuffle.

“When #blacklivesmatter is a controversial statement; when our black male students have a one in three chance of facing jail time; when kids in Memphis raised in the bottom fifth of the socioeconomic bracket have a 2.6 percent chance of climbing to the top fifth — our walking students home does not fix that, either.” —Carl Schneider

I think traditional public schools are the backbone of democracy. My child attends a charter school. Let’s talk.

“It was a complicated choice to make. The dialogue around school choice in Nashville, though, doesn’t often include much nuance — or many voices of parents like me.” —Aidan Hoyal

I grew up near Charlottesville and got a misleading education about Civil War history. Students deserve better.

“In my classroom discussions, the impetus for the Civil War was resigned to a debate over the balance of power between federal and state governments. Slavery was taught as a footnote to the cause of the war.” —Laura Faith Kebede