a different approach

In Albany, Fariña criticizes Cuomo’s plan for teacher evaluations

PHOTO: Geoff Decker
Raymond Orlando, the city education department's chief financial officer, testifies with Chancellor Carmen Fariña on Cuomo's budget in Albany on Tuesday.

Is a teacher coming to school every day? Is she attending professional development? Is she sharing her lessons with other teachers?

If the state’s teacher’s evaluation system is going to change, Chancellor Carmen Fariña told lawmakers in Albany on Tuesday, it should be to account for more of those factors, not to increase the role of state test scores.

“There’s so many other things,” Fariña said. “I was a teacher for more than 20 years and if I was only measured in test scores, that would only have been a little bit of my work.”

Fariña’s remarks, her most extensive comments yet on Governor Andrew Cuomo’s plans to overhaul the state’s teacher-evaluation system, came after testifying about Gov. Cuomo’s budget proposal. His teacher-evaluation plan would increase the role of state test scores, bring in outside experts to observe teachers, and diminish the role of a principal’s observation in exchange for increasing overall education spending.

“I absolutely believe that holding teachers accountable only on test scores and outside evaluators is not a good idea,” Fariña said in response to questions about Cuomo’s plan.

First passed in 2010, the state’s evaluation law was meant to create a system that rates teachers on a mix of student learning measures and principal observations. But two years after it was first implemented, nearly every teacher has been rated in the top two categories, though the ratings earned by city teachers were slightly more evenly distributed. Cuomo wants to change it to make it more difficult for teachers to earn top ratings, so struggling teachers can be identified and, in some cases, be fired.

New York City implemented its own plan before Fariña took over, but she negotiated some changes to the city’s evaluation system with the teachers union. The new contract reduced the number of skills that principals must assess and agreed to protect teachers who earned low ratings based on test scores.

“I think that what we’ve got in New York City, which is unique to New York City, should be a model for the rest of the country,” Fariña said.

But Fariña also offered a much broader idea of her vision for measuring a teacher’s performance. She suggested a better way to evaluate teachers might be through the framework that the city uses to evaluate schools, looking at elements such as instruction, collaboration, leadership, and ties with the community.

“Are they doing Common Core the way that it’s meant to be? Do they collaborate?” Fariña said.

Fariña noted that her positions on evaluation are in line with the national mood, as parents and officials in more states question the widespread emphasis on using standardized tests to assess schools, teachers, and students. But New York’s debate over evaluations is focused on the best way to measure student learning, making some what Fariña would want measured, such as attendance and collaboration, less likely to gain traction.

Other city’s education officials had more specific recommendations for improving teacher evaluations. Sharon Contreras, superintendent of the Syracuse City School District, said she backed Cuomo’s desire to eliminate local tests to evaluate teachers, but proposed that state test scores account for 30 percent of the overall rating. (Cuomo wants them to account for 50 percent.)

And while the teachers union has been the most outspoken critic of Cuomo’s plans for evaluations, Republicans in the Assembly who are not typical union allies also expressed their unease with giving the state more power over a teacher’s evaluation. Long Island Assembly Member Ed Ra, who has sponsored legislation opposing the Common Core standards, said he agreed 100 percent with city teachers union head Michael Mulgrew’s concerns.

“The more rigid we get, the more difficult” it becomes to evaluate teachers of students with special needs, Ra said.

teacher prep

Tennessee’s mediocre teacher training programs prompt ‘interventions’ with university presidents

PHOTO: Austin Peay
Austin Peay State University in Clarksville is among four Tennessee schools that have undergone "interventions" with state officials over the quality of their teacher training programs.

Armed with sobering data about the performance of teacher training programs in Tennessee, state officials are holding meetings with top brass at universities where they say programs have grown out of touch with the needs of K-12 classrooms.

About 40 programs in Tennessee feed the state’s teacher pipeline with about 4,000 new teachers annually. The largest are based at colleges and universities.

But those same traditional programs generally aren’t attracting enough high-quality candidates or producing enough effective or diverse teachers. Not a single public university in Tennessee scored in the top fifth of teacher training programs under a state report card issued in 2016. And the outlook isn’t expected to improve much under the 2017 report card being released early next month, officials say.

“This data is sobering. It tells us that higher education must do better,” said Mike Krause, executive director of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission. “I worry our higher education faculty in colleges of education get disconnected from what a K-12 classroom looks like.”

Krause outlined the challenges to state lawmakers during a presentation on Tuesday with Sara Heyburn Morrison, executive director of the Tennessee State Board of Education.

Their first “intervention meetings” were with the presidents and education deans at four universities: Austin Peay, Tennessee-Chattanooga, Tennessee-Martin, and Tennessee Tech. Similar meetings are scheduled this spring with leadership of private colleges and universities across the state.

Krause described the first meetings as “very productive” — and illuminating. “In many cases, the presidents just didn’t know” about their programs’ shortcomings, he said.

Teacher quality is considered a driving factor in students’ success, making the quality of teacher preparation programs a front-burner issue in Tennessee.  A 2016 report said only a handful of the state’s programs are consistently preparing teachers to improve student achievement based on Tennessee’s TVAAS measure. The State Board’s new grading system also highlighted weaknesses based on racial diversity, candidates’ ACT scores, and whether they are producing teachers for high-need areas such as special education.

Reading instruction is another big challenge. In a state where only a third of students are considered proficient in reading, new teachers are arriving in classrooms ill-prepared to instruct students on Tennessee’s new reading standards. The state is working with higher education institutions so their faculty can take the same professional development on literacy that working teachers are taking.

But for the most part, the State Board has limited levers for improving the quality of teacher prep. The biggest hammer comes every seven years when each program undergoes a comprehensive review for licensure. (In 2014, the state raised its standards and revised its measures for effectiveness to include data such as placement, retention and employer satisfaction.)

Chancellor Keith Carver

Tennessee-Martin Chancellor Keith Carver said his school took its last state report card to heart. As a result of its overall score of 2 out of a possible 4, the university hired an assessment coordinator to help guide decisions based on data. “It’s a really good baseline for improving,” he said of the report card. “We’ve got some work to do in our diversity profile.”

Tennessee’s teacher candidates are overwhelmingly white and female. Of those who completed Tennessee’s programs in 2016, only 14 percent identified themselves as non-white, compared with 36 percent of the state’s student population.

“Colleges of education will not stumble into diversity. There has to be a very intentional effort,” Krause said.

View the full presentation from Tuesday’s legislative hearing below.

call out

Our readers had a lot to say in 2017. Make your voice heard in 2018.

PHOTO: Chris Hill/Whitney Achievement School
Teacher Carl Schneider walks children home in 2015 as part of the after-school walking program at Whitney Achievement Elementary School in Memphis. This photograph went viral and inspired a First Person reflection from Schneider in 2017.

Last year, some of our most popular pieces came from readers who told their stories in a series that we call First Person.

For instance, Carl Schneider wrote about the 2015 viral photograph that showed him walking his students home from school in a low-income neighborhood of Memphis. His perspective on what got lost in the shuffle continues to draw thousands of readers.

First Person is also a platform to influence policy. Recent high school graduate Anisah Karim described the pressure she felt to apply to 100 colleges in the quest for millions of dollars in scholarships. Because of her piece, the school board in Memphis is reviewing the so-called “million-dollar scholar” culture at some high schools.

Do you have a story to tell or a point to make? In 2018, we want to give an even greater voice to students, parents, teachers, administrators, advocates and others who are trying to improve public education in Tennessee. We’re looking for essays of 500 to 750 words grounded in personal experience.

Whether your piece is finished or you just have an idea to discuss, drop a line to Community Editor Caroline Bauman at [email protected]

But first, check out these top First Person pieces from Tennesseans in 2017:

My high school told me to apply to 100 colleges — and I almost lost myself in the process

“A counselor never tried to determine what the absolute best school for me would be. I wasted a lot of time, money and resources trying to figure that out. And I almost lost myself in the process.” —Anisah Karim     

Why I’m not anxious about where my kids go to school — but do worry about the segregation that surrounds us

“In fact, it will be a good thing for my boys to learn alongside children who are different from them in many ways — that is one advantage they will have that I did not, attending parochial schools in a lily-white suburb.” —Mary Jo Cramb

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

“Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.” —Grace Tatter

I went viral for walking my students home from school in Memphis. Here’s what got lost in the shuffle.

“When #blacklivesmatter is a controversial statement; when our black male students have a one in three chance of facing jail time; when kids in Memphis raised in the bottom fifth of the socioeconomic bracket have a 2.6 percent chance of climbing to the top fifth — our walking students home does not fix that, either.” —Carl Schneider

I think traditional public schools are the backbone of democracy. My child attends a charter school. Let’s talk.

“It was a complicated choice to make. The dialogue around school choice in Nashville, though, doesn’t often include much nuance — or many voices of parents like me.” —Aidan Hoyal

I grew up near Charlottesville and got a misleading education about Civil War history. Students deserve better.

“In my classroom discussions, the impetus for the Civil War was resigned to a debate over the balance of power between federal and state governments. Slavery was taught as a footnote to the cause of the war.” —Laura Faith Kebede