A Big Bet

City’s community schools plan stirs doubt among supporters

PHOTO: Patrick Wall

When Mayor Bill de Blasio revealed his plan last month to rescue 94 of the city’s lowest performing schools by converting them into service-rich hubs known as “community schools,” groups that had spent years lobbying the city for such schools lauded the idea.

But behind the scenes, some of those same supporters expressed doubts.

They bubbled up Wednesday when members of a community schools advisory board met with Chancellor Carmen Fariña and other top city officials. Some of the City Hall-appointed members peppered the officials with questions about how the turnaround plan will work, and several walked out after officials stopped taking feedback, attendees said.

Unlike a smaller program de Blasio launched earlier this year that asked eager principals to apply for money to create community schools, the turnaround plan compels leaders of struggling schools to adopt that approach regardless of whether they appear willing or able. And the schools will be required to boost students’ academic performance within a few years, even though community schools’ record on that front is mixed and the city has offered few details about how it will help them improve instruction.

Those points are nagging at people who want the mayor’s plan to work, but worry what will happen to the community schools movement if it falls short. Megan Hester, an advisory board member who works for the Annenberg Institute for School Reform, said her concerns crept in just hours after the mayor’s speech last month.

“When I was laying in bed that night I thought, ‘This is going to be amazing, or it’s going to be the death of community schools,’” said Hester, who provides support to the Coalition for Educational Justice, an alliance of advocacy groups that has been an outspoken champion of community schools. “Because if they don’t pull off the academic piece, it’s going to be blamed on the community school model.”

An ambitious “gamble”

Deputy Mayor Richard Buery said the city's effort to launch 128 new community schools is akin to “building the track while you drive the train.”
PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Deputy Mayor Richard Buery said the city’s effort to launch 128 new community schools is akin to “building the track while you drive the train.”

The turnaround plan, dubbed “school renewal,” will connect the schools with agencies that will bring in physical and mental health services for students, after-school programs, tutoring, and perhaps job training or housing assistance for parents. The city will also provide teacher training and principal mentoring, a curriculum review, data-tracking systems, and an extra hour of learning time each day, officials said. In return, the schools must show that students have made academic gains within three years or they could face leadership changes or even closure.

The idea of saturating schools with services that attend to students’ personal needs goes back decades, and has been embraced by political leaders from President Obama and Gov. Cuomo down to the City Council. And it has been tried in districts across the country, including Cincinnati, where the city teachers union has taken de Blasio and other officials to visit.

Still, de Blasio’s plan stands out for its ambition: When the schools that applied are added to the struggling ones, the administration is now working to launch 128 new community schools — by some counts, quadrupling the number of such schools in the city.

It is also rare for a district to make the community schools model the centerpiece of its school-turnaround strategy. Trying to convert many low-performing schools into community schools all at once could prove especially challenging, and that has worried some of the very people who most want the plan to succeed, according to interviews with more than 20 advocates, educators, and experts.

Nicole Mader, a researcher who advised education department officials this summer as they crafted their plan for the 45 voluntary community schools, said it was “a total surprise” to see the city extend that model to the 94 struggling schools. (Eleven schools are in both groups.)

“We had conversations with them about how hard it would be to establish a community school at schools that are failing on many fronts,” said Mader, an education policy analyst at the Center for New York City Affairs at the New School. “It was a crazy gamble to put so much reliance on this model before the model as whole has been proven to work” at this scale in New York, she said.

The academic component

The biggest question looming over the community-schools-as-turnaround plan is whether it will improve the schools’ academics. Advocates and city officials both agree that flooding schools with social workers and healthcare providers can remove obstacles that keep students from learning and teachers from focusing on instruction, but unless the schools’ academic programs improve too, students are unlikely to make big gains.

In fact, several city schools that have used the community-school model for years still grapple with low test scores and graduation rates, such as P.S. 50 in East Harlem, which has been a Children’s Aid Society-partnered community school for 14 years but still landed on the renewal-schools list. The principal of Boys and Girls High School in Bedford-Stuyvesant, who recently resigned, brought in mentors from Good Shepherd Services last fall and a health clinic as part of a years-long effort to create a community school by partnering with outside groups and bringing in services. But the school’s curriculum and instruction still had flaws, evaluators concluded last year, and it remains on the state’s lowest-ranked list.

City officials argue that the new community schools will get more funding and support than those created in the past, along with academic interventions like longer days and teacher training. Jane Quinn, director of the Children’s Aid Society’s National Center for Community Schools, said she “totally supports” the city’s community schools push, but is awaiting more specifics about the academic components.

“What is the plan for helping these 94 schools with the instructional side?” she said. “I think it needs to be forthcoming pretty soon.”

Promising but mixed results

Fariña visited P.S. 5, a longtime community school in Upper Manhattan, with Principal Wanda Soto and Deputy Mayor Richard Buery earlier this year.
PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Fariña visited P.S. 5, a longtime community school in Upper Manhattan, with Principal Wanda Soto and Deputy Mayor Richard Buery earlier this year.

City officials point to other districts that have achieved impressive academic gains through a community schools approach, such as Boston and Tulsa, to make the case for their plan. However, those models differ from New York’s in important ways.

Boston had its community schools program in place for nearly a decade before it spread the model to a handful of state-designated struggling schools, whose principals were also replaced. And in Tulsa, principals take multiple years to study the model and plan before becoming a community school — a much longer timeline than the one planned for New York.

In general, research on whether community schools improve student academic performance is promising but mixed, said Kristin Anderson Moore, a senior scholar at the research center Child Trends who has analyzed the model.

“There are studies that find positive impacts,” she said. “But when you look at a lot of them, you also find others that don’t.”

Driving the train

Another unknown is whether principals of the low-performing schools — who may want more support, but didn’t opt into the program or know the city’s plans until its announcement — will embrace the community schools model or be able to pull it off.

Experts note that running a community school involves much more than choosing from a menu of support programs. The city will pay for site coordinators at each school, but principals still must help identify the school’s needs and find the right providers. Experienced principals then weave those extra services seamlessly into the school by, for example, inviting after-school workers to teacher trainings and parents to high-level meetings.

Mark House, principal of the Community Health Academy of the Heights, a Washington Heights community school, said that even with a full-time site coordinator he spends at least one-fifth of every week dealing with the program’s logistics. To run a single after-school yoga class for parents and students, for instance, he had to raise money, handle liability matters, coordinate with the school custodian, and make sure yoga mats were available.

“It’s that kind of stuff over and over again,” he said. “It’s a very significant amount of time.”

Deputy Mayor Richard Buery, who is overseeing the community schools efforts, said he is confident that educators at the 94 schools will welcome the model and the extra resources it offers, and he emphasized that the full turnaround plan pairs academic interventions with support services. Still, he said that launching the plan has been akin to “building the track while you drive the train.”

“Our job is to keep pushing it,” he said, “so that teachers can come to school with the skills and readiness to teach and students come with a readiness to learn.”

Update: This article has been updated to better describe the community-school efforts at Boys and Girls High School and its academic struggles.

Weekend Reads

Need classroom decor inspiration? These educators have got you covered.

This school year, students will spend about 1,000 hours in school —making their classrooms a huge part of their learning experience.

We’re recognizing educators who’ve poured on the pizazz to make students feel welcome. From a 9th-grade “forensics lab” decked out in caution tape to a classroom stage complete with lights to get first graders pumped about public speaking, these crafty teachers have gone above and beyond to create great spaces.

Got a classroom of your own to show off? Know someone that should be on this list? Let us know!

Jaclyn Flores, First Grade Dual Language, Rochester, New York
“Having a classroom that is bright, cheerful, organized and inviting allows my students to feel pride in their classroom as well as feel welcome. My students look forward to standing on the stage to share or sitting on special chairs to dive into their learning. This space is a safe place for my students and we take pride in what it has become.”

Jasmine, Pre-K, Las Vegas, Nevada
“My classroom environment helps my students because providing calming colors and a home-like space makes them feel more comfortable in the classroom and ready to learn as first-time students!”

 

Oneika Osborne, 10th Grade Reading, Miami Southridge Senior High School, Miami, Florida
“My classroom environment invites all of my students to constantly be in a state of celebration and self-empowerment at all points of the learning process. With inspirational quotes, culturally relevant images, and an explosion of color, my classroom sets the tone for the day every single day as soon as we walk in. It is one of optimism, power, and of course glitter.”

Kristen Poindexter, Kindergarten, Spring Mill Elementary School, Indianapolis, Indiana
“I try very hard to make my classroom a place where memorable experiences happen. I use songs, finger plays, movement, and interactive activities to help cement concepts in their minds. It makes my teacher heart so happy when past students walk by my classroom and start their sentence with, “Remember when we…?”. We recently transformed our classroom into a Mad Science Lab where we investigated more about our 5 Senses.”

 

Brittany, 9th Grade Biology, Dallas, Texas
“I love my classroom environment because I teach Biology, it’s easy to relate every topic back to Forensics and real-life investigations! Mystery always gets the students going!”

 

Ms. Heaton, First Grade, Westampton, New Jersey
“As an educator, it is my goal to create a classroom environment that is positive and welcoming for students. I wanted to create a learning environment where students feel comfortable and in return stimulates student learning. A classroom is a second home for students so I wanted to ensure that the space was bright, friendly, and organized for the students to be able to use each and every day.”

D’Essence Grant, 8th Grade ELA, KIPP Houston, Houston, Texas
“Intentionally decorating my classroom was my first act of showing my students I care about them. I pride myself on building relationships with my students and them knowing I care about them inside and outside of the classroom. Taking the time to make the classroom meaningful and creative as well building a safe place for our community helps establish an effective classroom setting.”

 

Jayme Wiertzema, Elementary Art, Worthington, Minnesota
“I’m looking forward to having a CLASSROOM this year. The past two years I have taught from a cart and this year my amazing school district allowed me to have a classroom in our school that is busting at the seams! I’m so excited to use my classroom environment to inspire creativity in my students, get to know them and learn from their amazing imaginations in art class!”

 

Melissa Vecchio, 4th Grade, Queens, New York
“Since so much of a student’s time is spent inside their classroom, the environment should be neat, organized, easy to move around in but most of all positive. I love to use a theme to reinforce great behavior. I always give the students a choice in helping to design bulletin boards and desk arrangements. When they are involved they take pride in the classroom, and enjoy being there.”

moving forward

After Confederate flag dispute at Colorado football game, schools pledge to bring students together

PHOTO: Marc Piscotty
Manual High students.

Acknowledging “we may never have a conclusive picture of what happened,” two Colorado school districts sought to move past a controversy over whether a Confederate flag was displayed at a football game and open a conversation between the two school communities.

The principal of Manual High, Nick Dawkins, wrote in a community letter over the weekend that the visiting Weld Central High School team “displayed a Confederate flag during the first quarter of the (Friday night) game, offending many members of the Manual community.”

Officials from Denver Public Schools and Weld County School District Re-3J released a joint letter Tuesday saying that based “on what we have learned to date, however, the Weld Central team did not display the Confederate flag.” At the same time, it said, multiple Manual eyewitnesses “reported seeing spectators who attempted to bring a Confederate flag into the game and clothing with flag images.”

Going forward, students from the two schools — one rural and one urban — will participate in a student leadership exchange that has student leaders visit each other’s schools and communities to “share ideas and perspectives,” the letter says.

“At a time in our country when so many are divided, we want our students instead to come together, share ideas and learn together,” says the letter, which is signed by the principals of both schools and the superintendents of both school districts.

The alleged incident took place at a time when issues of race, social injustice, politics and sports are colliding in the United States, making for tough conversations, including in classrooms.

Weld Central’s mascot is a Rebel. Manual, whose mascot is the Thunderbolts, is located in one of Denver’s historically African-American neighborhoods.

Dawkins in his initial community letter also said “the tension created by the flag led to conflict on and off the playing field,” and that three Manual players were injured, including one who went to the hospital with a leg injury. He also said some Manual players reported that Weld Central players “taunted them with racial slurs.”

Weld Central officials vehemently denied that their team displayed the flag. In addition, they said in their own community letter they had “no evidence at this point that any of our student athletes displayed racially motivated inappropriate behavior.”

They said district officials “do not condone any form of racism,” including the Confederate flag.

Weld Central fans told the Greeley Tribune that they didn’t see any Confederate flag.

Read the full text below.