on tape

For 20 percent of city teachers, observations come after a film screening

A video still shot of Danielle Lerro's English language arts class at I.S. 303 in the South Bronx. Lerro and Assistant Principal Monica Brady will be discussing how video can enhance the classroom observation process at a Feb. 25 event hosted by Chalkbeat New York and New America NYC.

As one of just two people certified to do classroom observations at I.S. 303, Assistant Principal Monica Brady’s workload is getting pretty backed up.

She and the principal together must observe the South Bronx middle school’s 29 teachers 174 times as part of their new teacher evaluation plans.

“I’m fairly behind on getting mine all done,” Brady said. “There’s just not enough hours in the day.”

But Brady has a plan to catch up. All of the teachers at I.S. 303 allowed administrators to film their lessons, so she can watch the tapes later rather than see them teach in person.

It’s a tool that 20 percent of city teachers opted into this year, the first under new evaluation rules that require many more observations than in the past. Brady and Danielle Lerro, one of her teachers, will be discussing how they use video in observations at a panel discussion that we’re co-hosting Feb. 25 with New America NYC. (RSVP for a free seat here.)

New York City is one of just 10 districts in the state to offer the video option for teachers, according to the State Education Department. City officials said one in five teachers authorized their administrators to film their classes.

The option was made available in the city’s evaluation plan imposed last year by State Education Commissioner John King, who has encouraged the use of video as a way to provide good feedback to teachers about their instruction. State law requires subjective measures such as observations to count for 60 percent of each teacher’s evaluation, and King required city administrators to rate teachers on all 22 elements of the Danielson Framework for Teaching.

King also gave teachers a choice between having one pre-announced period-length observation and three shorter ones, or at least six shorter and less formal observations.

At I.S. 303, all teachers chose the second option. But they soon saw that pulling it off would be logistically complicated.

“We realized it was really impossible to expect them to get into the classroom six times over the course of the year,” said Lerro, an eighth-grade English language arts teacher.

The United Federation of Teachers supports the observation-by-video option as long as teachers sign off on it beforehand. The union also prefers that teachers give consent when their classes are used to provide feedback, not inform an observation.

Brady and Lerro said using video as part of classroom observations, even for high-stakes evaluative purposes, is promising for more reasons than just saving time. I.S. 303 has taped dozens of hours of instruction in recent years to help teachers reflect on their own work and improve.

“When you’re viewing yourself, that can be really helpful,” Lerro said.

Brady said she’s able to pick up on more, because she can watch the tapes multiple times and notice different aspects of the class and the teacher’s instruction each time.

And having an objective record of a class is helpful when administrators and teachers debrief afterwards, she said, because their impressions of the class can often differ.

“You and I can see things very differently,” Brady said of how real-time perceptions inside a classroom differ. One person could see evidence of high engagement, something that the Danielson Framework demands, in a class where students eagerly raise their hands and shout out answers, she said. But another person might see the same class and think that the teacher struggled with classroom management.

Lerro said one reason that using video has worked at I.S. 303 is because teachers and administrators have a strong relationship already. And she said that since the school had been using video for its professional development for years, opting into using it for high-stakes teacher evaluations was not a big concern.

“People felt comfortable because they felt real trust with the administration,” Lerro said. “They know that the evaluations are being used to really make us better.”

And Brady said the time-saving appeal of using video instead of observing classes in person does result in some loss. “The best of both worlds,” she said, would be if administrators were present in the classroom for the observation and taped it at the same time, enabling both the administrator and teacher to use the footage to confirm or revise their first impressions about how the lesson went.

And Brady said video can be limiting for another reason: While videotaped lessons allow observers to see clearly what the teacher is doing, the camera’s placement in the back of the classroom makes it hard to tell how students are reacting.

“You can’t see if they’re having an ‘Aha!’ moment,” she said.

NEW DATA

Michigan’s ‘band-aid’ for filling teaching jobs is expanding. Here’s what you need to know.

PHOTO: Koby Levin
Teachers welcome students to the Southwest Detroit Community School on the first day of school. Seven of the charter's 31 educators last year entered the profession through a fast-track training program.

There aren’t enough qualified teachers to fill classrooms across Michigan — and especially in Detroit. That’s why state officials have opened the door to a controversial way of filling classrooms, loosening restrictions on so-called alternative certifications for educators.

In addition to Teachers of Tomorrow, a fast-track, for-profit teacher certification program that began placing teachers with virtually no classroom experience in schools this year, another for-profit company, #T.E.A.C.H., was recently approved to help expand the state’s teacher pipeline. They’ve joined long-running nonprofit programs like Teach for America, whose corps members typically get some in-classroom training and more hours of teaching classes.

If the expansion continues, it could change the face of schools across the state, in cities like Detroit most of all. In states like Texas — home to Teachers of Tomorrow — nearly half of new teachers take non-traditional routes to certification.

As policymakers gear up for a tug of war over teacher certification, Chalkbeat obtained last year’s teacher certification data for the entire state. The data, alongside interviews with experts in teacher training, painted a picture of where we are now — and where we might be headed.

It shows that teachers with alternative certification are concentrated in Detroit, largely at charter schools, and that they’re disproportionately at a handful of schools.

Scroll down for a list of schools in Michigan that employed at least one teacher with an interim certification last year.

But first — what is alternative certification, again?

In short, it’s an express lane into the teaching profession. Michigan teachers have traditionally attended teacher certification programs that require them to student teach in an actual classroom. By contrast, Michigan’s alternative certification route, which was created under former Gov. Jennifer Granholm, allows anyone with a bachelor’s degree and a 3.0 GPA to start teaching after taking a few courses online and passing a test in the subject they hope to teach. Unlike traditional teacher colleges, these programs don’t require any in-classroom training.

After three years on the job, teachers with alternative certifications can become fully certified if their principal signs off.

This fast-track arrangement is not unusual — almost every U.S. state offers an accelerated route into teaching. But some are much more widely used than others.

The vast majority of Michigan educators still come from traditional, four- or five-year teacher training programs.

It’s not even close. When the state Legislature allowed for an alternate route to teacher certification nearly a decade ago, the policy was billed as an important tool in the struggle to alleviate a statewide teacher shortage. But the 248 educators with “interim certifications” who were employed in Michigan last year amount to little more than a blip in a statewide teacher corps of about 100,000.

A few controversial for-profit certification programs, which were approved to operate in Michigan for the first time last year, hope to change that. Teachers of Tomorrow, whose graduates have begun finding work in Michigan schools, certifies tens of thousands of teachers in 12 states.  And in a promotional video on its website, #T.E.A.C.H, promises to help would-be educators “start teaching almost immediately.” It allows teachers to complete their online training after they have started working in the classroom.

Teachers who go through an alternative certification program are heavily concentrated in Detroit.

Research shows that poor students of color in the U.S. are more likely to be taught by a teacher with an alternative certification. That holds true in Michigan. Two-thirds of the teachers certified through a non-traditional program in the state teach in the city of Detroit, where most students are poor and black or Latino.

This may be because Detroit schools are more willing to hire them. Less than one-twentieth of Michigan’s more than 3,000 schools don’t employ a single teacher with an interim certification. About one-third of Detroit’s schools do.

To be sure, the statewide teacher shortage is particularly punishing in Detroit, where poverty and large class sizes make working in the classroom more difficult. Alternative certification programs have focused their recruiting efforts in the city in an attempt to help fill the gap.

Across the country, cities “are where it’s hardest to get conventional teachers,” said Chester Finn, a senior fellow at the Thomas Fordham Institute, a conservative think tank that has published studies of alternative certification. “Cities are also often where people from Teach for America and other idealistic programs are likely to want to teach.”

Critics say that lowering the barriers to entry into the teaching profession won’t address the deeper problems that plague Detroit schools. And they worry that this quick fix comes with unintended consequences.

“It’s really more like a band-aid, as opposed to addressing the larger issue,” said Christopher Crowley, a professor of teacher education at Wayne State University. “These are experiments, and they’re being tested on certain populations and not others.”

Teachers with alternative certifications can be effective.

It is very difficult to determine whether teachers who take this route perform any worse than their peers, partly because the accelerated programs vary widely in the amount of training and support they give new teachers. Armen Hratchian, director of Teach for America in Detroit, says its program allows teachers to be successful with fewer hours of in-classroom training — known as student teaching — that is common at traditional teacher colleges.

“To help meet the highest standard of teaching here in Michigan, TFA teachers spend over 400 pre-service hours training over the summer, continue to receive intensive coaching and development throughout their first two years, and are monitored and credentialed by the University of Michigan,” he said in an email.

But they are far more likely to leave the profession.

There’s little doubt that teachers who use alternative certification are more likely to leave the profession within a few years. Schools that fill vacancies with such teachers can find themselves in a “vicious cycle” of never-ending hiring, said Desiree Carver-Thomas, an education researcher at the non-partisan Learning Policy Institute, which last month published a list of best practices for combating teacher shortages that does not include alternative certification.

“Most states have been struggling to address teacher shortages for several years, often filling the vacuum with underprepared teachers,” the report reads.

Charter schools hire more teachers with alternative certifications than traditional schools.

Last year, 130 teachers with alternative certification were in charter schools compared with 105 at traditional schools in Michigan. A handful of charter schools have an especially high concentration of these teachers. At the Jalen Rose Leadership Academy, a tiny charter high school on the city’s northern border, nearly half of the 25 teachers at the school last year had not attended a traditional teaching program.

“As the teacher shortage continues to be an ongoing issue, I am always looking to find creative ways to find qualified candidates,” said Wendie Lewis, principal of the Jalen Rose Leadership Academy, in an email. In her experience, teachers who arrive at the school via programs like Teach for America are actually more apt to stay than traditionally certified teachers, perhaps because they promise at the outset to teach for two years.

There are lots of other ways to fight the teacher shortage.

Experts recommend raising salaries, trying to coax retired teachers back onto the job, forgiving student loans for teachers, offering new teachers more mentorship — and the list goes on.

Local governments, philanthropies, and companies have also pitched in, sweetening the deal for teachers by offering discounts on houses and cars for educators in Detroit.

And school leaders in Detroit are already going to extraordinary lengths to fill their classrooms.

Most recently, the city’s main district announced a partnership with the University of Michigan and the Kresge Foundation to, among other things, build a new “cradle to career” school that will feature a beefed-up teacher training program. The idea, in part, is that better-trained, better-supported teachers are more likely to stay in the profession. The district has said it won’t rule out hiring teachers from alternative certification programs, but Superintendent Nikolai Vitti has made clear that he prefers teachers with more training.

“We have to get out of the days of taking any adult that has some education and some certification and placing them in a school, and go to a model where we actually teach teachers how to teach,” Vitti said as he announced the new school on Thursday.

Here’s a list of schools where teachers with alternative certifications were working in Michigan during the 2017-18 school year:

School # Teachers w/ Alt. Cert. Type of school City
Jalen Rose Leadership Academy 11 Charter Detroit
Central High School 9 Traditional Detroit
Voyageur College Prep 8 Charter Detroit
Denby High School 7 Traditional Detroit
Detroit Edison Public School Academy 7 Charter Detroit
MacDowell Preparatory Academy 7 Charter Detroit
Mumford High School 7 Traditional Detroit
Southwest Detroit Community School 7 Charter Detroit
Detroit Enterprise Academy 6 Charter Detroit
Henry Ford Academy: School for Creative Studies (PSAD) 6 Charter Detroit
Voyageur Academy 6 Charter Detroit
Henry Ford Academy: School for Creative Studies – Elementary 5 Charter Detroit
Burns Elementary-Middle School 4 Traditional Detroit
Law Elementary School 4 Traditional Detroit
Southeastern High School 4 Traditional Detroit
Cass Technical High School 3 Traditional Detroit
Cesar Chavez High School 3 Charter Detroit
Clippert Academy 3 Traditional Detroit
Detroit Innovation Academy 3 Charter Detroit
Detroit Leadership Academy Elementary 3 Charter Detroit
Detroit Leadership Academy Middle/High 3 Charter Detroit
Ford High School 3 Traditional Detroit
Pansophia Academy 3 Charter Coldwater
Washington-Parks Academy 3 Charter Redford
Beecher High School 2 Traditional Mount Morris
Benjamin Carson School for Science and Medicine 2 Traditional Detroit
Detroit City West Side Academy for Leadership Development 2 Traditional Detroit
Detroit Prep 2 Charter Detroit
Frontier International Academy 2 Charter Detroit
Linden Charter Academy 2 Charter Flint
New Paradigm Loving Academy 2 Charter Detroit
Nolan Elementary-Middle School 2 Traditional Detroit
Old Redford Academy – High 2 Charter Detroit
St. Catherine of Siena Academy 2 Private Wixom
Trix Academy 2 Charter Detroit
University Preparatory Academy (PSAD) – High School 2 Charter Detroit
University Preparatory Science and Math (PSAD) Middle School 2 Charter Detroit
Webberville High School 2 Traditional Webberville
Western International High School 2 Traditional Detroit
Academy for Business and Technology Elementary 1 Charter Dearborn
ACTech High School 1 Traditional Ypsilanti
Advanced Technology Academy 1 Charter Dearborn
All Saints Catholic School 1 Private Canton
Alternative Educational Academy of Iosco County 1 Charter East Tawas
Ann L. Dolsen Elementary School 1 Traditional New Hudson
Arno Elementary School 1 Traditional Allen Park
Avondale High School 1 Traditional Auburn Hills
Avondale Middle School 1 Traditional Rochester Hills
Bendle Middle School 1 Traditional Burton
Botsford Elementary School 1 Traditional Livonia
Brenda Scott Academy for Theatre Arts 1 Traditional Detroit
Capstone Academy Charter School (SDA) – South Campus 1 Charter Detroit
Cesar Chavez Middle School 1 Charter Detroit
Chandler Park Academy – Middle School 1 Charter Harper Woods
Chelsea High School 1 Traditional Chelsea
Communication and Media Arts HS 1 Traditional Detroit
Conner Creek Academy East – Michigan Collegiate 1 Charter Warren
Crescent Academy Elementary 1 Charter Southfield
Crestwood High School 1 Traditional Dearborn Heights
Croswell-Lexington High School 1 Traditional Croswell
Dansville High School 1 Traditional Dansville
Dearborn High School 1 Traditional Dearborn
Detroit Achievement Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Collegiate High School 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Delta Preparatory Academy for Social Justice 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Edison Public School Academy – High School 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Merit Charter Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit School of Arts 1 Traditional Detroit
Dickinson East Elementary School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
East Arbor Charter Academy 1 Charter Ypsilanti
Eastpointe High School 1 Traditional Eastpointe
Ecorse Community High School 1 Traditional Ecorse
Escuela Avancemos 1 Charter Detroit
Fitzgerald Senior High School 1 Traditional Warren
George Washington Carver Elementary School 1 Charter Highland Park
Grand Ledge High School 1 Traditional Grand Ledge
Hamtramck High School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
Harrison High School 1 Traditional Farmington Hills
Henry Ford Academy 1 Charter Dearborn
Holy Family Regional School 1 Private Rochester
Hope of Detroit Academy – Elementary 1 Charter Detroit
Horizon High School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
Inkster Preparatory Academy 1 Charter Inkster
International Academy of Flint (K-12) 1 Charter Flint
Jackson Christian School 1 Private Jackson
Jackson ISD Local Based Special Education Programs 1 ISD School Jackson
Kensington Woods Schools 1 Charter Lakeland
Kosciuszko School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
Legacy Charter Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Lindemann Elementary School 1 Traditional Allen Park
Litchfield High School 1 Traditional Litchfield
Lowrey Middle School 1 Traditional Dearborn
Madison High School 1 Traditional Madison Heights
Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary-Middle School 1 Traditional Detroit
Maybury Elementary School 1 Traditional Detroit
Medicine and Community Health Academy at Cody 1 Traditional Detroit
Michigan Connections Academy 1 Charter Okemos
Multicultural Academy 1 Charter Ann Arbor
Munger Elementary-Middle School 1 Traditional Detroit
Murphy Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Noble Elementary-Middle School 1 Traditional Detroit
Northeast Elementary School 1 Traditional Jackson
Northridge Academy 1 Charter Flint
Novi High School 1 Traditional Novi
Novi Woods Elementary School 1 Traditional Novi
Osborn Academy of Mathematics 1 Traditional Detroit
Owosso High School 1 Traditional Owosso
Oxford Crossroads Day School 1 Traditional Oxford
Pershing High School 1 Traditional Detroit
Reach Charter Academy 1 Charter Roseville
Redford Service Learning Academy Campus 1 Charter Redford
Redford Union High School 1 Traditional Redford
Regent Park Scholars Charter Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Renaissance High School 1 Traditional Detroit
Royal Oak High School 1 Traditional Royal Oak
Salina Intermediate 4 – 8 1 Traditional Dearborn
Saline High School 1 Traditional Saline
South Lake High School 1 Traditional Saint Clair Shores
South Pointe Scholars Charter Academy 1 Charter Ypsilanti
Thornton Creek Elementary School 1 Traditional Novi
University Preparatory Academy (PSAD) – Elementary 1 Charter Detroit
University Preparatory Science and Math (PSAD) High School 1 Charter Detroit
University Yes Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Washtenaw International High School 1 ISD School Ypsilanti
Woodworth Middle School 1 Traditional Dearborn
Ypsilanti STEMM Middle College 1 Traditional Ypsilanti

Source: Michigan Department of Education

Race and equity

Looking for the ‘Wakanda factor’: 3 tips for breaking down barriers facing educators of color

PHOTO: Getty Images

It’s a persistent problem in schools across Indianapolis, the state, and the nation: Too few teachers look like their students.

America’s teaching force is disproportionately white and female, even in districts like Indianapolis Public Schools, where just under half of students are black, nearly a third are Hispanic, and about one-fifth are white.

At the annual conference Thursday of the teacher training and advocacy group TNTP, I moderated a panel on addressing the systemic barriers and unconscious biases that educators of color face — from their own formative school years, through college and certification, and into the classroom.

The dynamic group of four panelists — an equity expert, a politician, a school leader, and an administrator — offered thoughts on dismantling the structural barriers that many educators face, with the goal of fostering more inclusive classrooms for both teachers and students.

From his experience as the principal of Camden High School in New Jersey, Alex Jones underscored the importance of students having teachers who come from backgrounds similar to their own.

“One of my coworkers coined a phrase where he said, ‘We’re looking for this Wakanda factor. … You know, when people see “Black Panther,” now students believe they can do these great things that we saw as part of Wakandan society as things that people of color can achieve,’” Jones said. “So, we want to make sure we’re putting people in front of our students that our students can say, ‘This is someone who has had similar experiences to me, this is someone who I can relate and connect to, and this is someone I can see myself growing up and being like.’”

Here are three other tips, tools, and takeaways from the discussion.

Systemic problems require systemic changes

At the start of the panel, which brought together a few dozen educators from across the country, Aleesia Johnson, deputy superintendent for academics at Indianapolis Public Schools, explained: “If you see a lake full of dead fish, you’re not going to say, ‘What’s wrong with the fish?’ You’re going to say, ‘What happened in this lake that all our fish are dying?’”

And yet in education, Johnson said, “we turn to ‘fish-fixing’ versus seeing systemically what’s wrong with our lake, and what do we need to do to fix the lake that our fish are in.”

The metaphor comes from longtime district educator Pat Payne, who runs IPS’ Racial Equity Institute to train schools on racial biases.

Be a school that embraces diversity

Tiffany Kyser, associate director of engagement and partnerships at the Great Lakes Equity Center, offered tips for creating more inclusive schools, such as using people-first language. Instead of “English-language learners,” for example, she said educators could refer to such students as “emerging multilingual students.” Different cultures and native tongues can be seen as assets, rather than deficits, she said.

But while the value of diversity might be easy to understand, Kyser said recruitment and retention of educators of color can be a one-way street if schools don’t often ask themselves: “Are you actually ready to receive educators of difference?”

People of color “should not be ornamentation,” Kyser said. “When you introduce people to your organization, your organization is going to change. From a strategic standpoint, is your organization ready to be malleable? To go to a place of deferring judgment, so that it can reimagine who it’s going to be?”

Take on the “-isms”

Equity needs to be central to the work that educators are doing, the panelists all pointed out — and to the community at large.

Johnson, the IPS deputy superintendent, acknowledged how easy it is, in the bustle of the school year, not to be as thoughtful or intentional enough about racial equity.

“It’s very easy to think about your equity work not as the foundation of the work, but a body of work that sits over here that I can check the box on,” she explained.

For her part, Kyser said educators need to confront racism — and other “isms” — head-on.

“‘Bias’ has now become a safe word to get around using other terms, like racism, sexism, homophobia, xenophobia. So we have to name it if we’re going to redress racism,” she said. “We have to name it in a loving way. There are other factors at play where you don’t want to shut people down — you want to honor where people are, but you also don’t want to dismiss and excuse that often people who are using coded language are also people who are benefitting from more and more types of privilege.”

Blake Johnson, an Indianapolis city councilman, said lawmakers rarely talk about systemic racism and implicit bias, so they often don’t focus on how to change policies that create structural barriers.

“In the policy world, these conversations don’t happen very often,” he said.