state of the union

Behind UFT's robust operations, a small army of chapter leaders

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The UFT is a politically powerful organization with millions of dollars at its disposal and sweeping campaigns that aim to make change at the highest levels of education policy. But at the heart of all of the spending and lobbying is the union’s contract with the city.

Clocking in at 165 pages just for classroom teachers, the contract spells out everything teachers must do, and everything they should not. Some of its clauses, such as those specifying what teachers cannot be compelled to do, have drawn fierce criticism for impeding administrator discretion so much that student performance suffers. But the contract is also the only guarantee that teachers are compensated for their time and receive due process rights when they are accused of misconduct.

For all of the conflict the contract elicits, it has meaning on the ground only if someone enforces its terms. That job falls to the small army of “chapter leaders” who represent the union at each school, and who are many teachers’ only contact with their union.

UFT Secretary Michael Mendel calls chapter leaders — who are elected by their colleagues every three years — “the backbone of the union.” But who are the chapter leaders? What do they actually do? What challenges do they face? The answers to those questions, which have long been obscured behind individual schoolhouse doors, are essential to understanding how the UFT serves its members and calls upon them to take action.

Educating educators

The first task of any chapter leader is to help his or her colleagues understand their rights and responsibilities. Teachers and many other city educators automatically begin paying union dues when they are added to the Department of Education’s payroll, but learning what’s in the contract takes longer.

“People don’t understand the contract. Few people, I think, actually read” it, said Arthur Goldstein, chapter leader at Francis Lewis High School in Queens. Goldstein said he was unfamiliar with the contract, too, when he won the position four years ago.

Chapter leaders said what they know about the contract comes from union trainings, monthly meetings with their district representatives, and the many rounds of research they do to respond to individual members’ questions.

“All the benefits we have can be confusing,” said Alice O’Neil, who worked as a chapter leader for seven years at Food and Finance High School in Manhattan and is now in her second year as the union district representative for Manhattan high schools.

Enforcing the contract

Getting teachers to know their rights is only half of the battle chapter leaders face. They must also ensure that the contract’s terms are respected, which can be challenging in a climate where even the most collegial administrators are under pressure to accomplish more with less resources.

In schools where teachers and administrators generally work well together, chapter leaders say they do not always have to be adversarial to get school leaders to respect the contract. Tara Brancato, chapter leader at Knowledge and Power Preparatory Academy in the Bronx, said the work of a savvy chapter leader can “put out a lot of problems before they become big problems.”

When the school year opened with uncertainty about how teachers would be evaluated, “people could have gotten very upset very quickly,” she said. “Instead, they brought it to me, I brought it to the principal, and we had a big school meeting about it.”

But in situations where getting the contract enforced requires a fight, the chapter leader helps teachers use the union’s main tool for enforcement, the grievance. Teachers file grievances when they think their rights have been violated, and chapter leaders can file grievances on behalf of their teachers, for example when class sizes exceed their contractual limits.

Goldstein said the chapter leader stands up against administrative abuses where individual teachers might not have the will or stamina.

“You might be a new teacher, and you might not want to file a grievance because your class size is too big. This way you don’t have to get involved, you don’t have an administrator saying, ‘Gee, why can’t you take 37 students, that’s not so bad,’” Goldstein said. “I just grieve for everyone.”

After a grievance has been filed, chapter leaders facilitate meetings between teachers and their administrators, sometimes brokering compromises early on. Conflicts that aren’t resolved at the school level enter into an onerous hearing process that can last months or years, and chapter leaders are responsible for bringing complaints to union leaders.

“After step one, the grievance is completely in hands of UFT,” said Jamaica High School chapter leader James Eterno.

The chapter leader must support union members who have grievances even if he or she doesn’t think their complaints have merit, a position that several leaders said can be difficult to navigate. But Dana Lawit, the chapter leader at the Kurt Hahn Expeditionary Learning School in Brooklyn, said she resolves the tension by thinking of her role as “protecting the process.”

A political position

In addition to defending individual teachers at the school level, chapter leaders are also expected to support broader efforts to safeguard the profession.

“We sometimes ask them for information, we sometimes ask them to come to meetings, we sometimes ask them to go to rallies,” said Mendel. “We sometimes ask them to do political work.”

In weekly emails, union officials poll chapter leaders about budget cuts and conditions at their schools, such as class size, to fuel high-level appeals against behaviors that the union’s leadership has identified as abusive.

After the union successfully made the case to Department of Education officials in 2011 that some principals were improperly assessing teachers, the UFT newspaper credited chapter leaders with the win. “None of these important matters could have been addressed so well without the attentiveness and commitment of chapter leaders,” an editorial read. “The UFT counts on chapter leaders to be its eyes and ears on the front lines.”

And when the union holds rallies or lobbies in Albany, chapter leaders are expected to let their members know, and are asked, but not required, to participate themselves. (Chapter leaders who are not necessarily on board with all elements of the union’s agenda said they do not feel pressure to participate in campaigns they don’t support. “There are chapter leaders involved in that. I choose not to take on that role,” said Patrick Sprinkle, the chapter leader at Bronx Collegiate who is also a member of Educators 4 Excellence, an advocacy group that sometimes opposes the union on education policy issues. “Our teachers can make their own decisions about whether to go to rallies.”)

The union’s political expertise, which it wields heavily in local and state elections, can also be useful to chapter leaders on the ground. When Lawit worked with other chapter leaders on her shared campus to protest the city’s plans to add an additional school to the building, the union helped them write media releases and connect with parents and local advocacy organizations.

The position can be politically fraught inside schools, as well. Several chapter leaders said they have had to ease tension between senior and new teachers, particularly when the prospect of teacher layoffs periodically emerges and teachers with the least experience face losing their positions.

In particular, teachers minted through non-traditional pathways such as through Teach for America, who might not be considering teaching as a long-term career, sometimes have a harder time understanding the seniority rights enshrined in the union contract, said Lawit, who herself entered the classroom through the NYC Teaching Fellows alternative certification program.

“There’s a complicated relationship that teachers who have come in through alternative certification programs have with unions, because they’re conditioned to dislike it — or never really understood how it was a part of their professional life,” she said. New teachers, she added, might get training on how to plan a lesson, but they don’t always “know about the political context [they’re] working in that’s actually really complicated.”

The tough stuff

All of the educating, enforcing, and engaging is supposed to get done in just a few hours each week. At small schools, chapter leaders get about 45 minutes a day off from school responsibilities, such as monitoring the cafeteria or supervising bus pickup and dismissal. At larger schools, they teach one fewer class than their colleagues, giving them a little more time to field questions, juggle grievances, and get political. (The union picks up the tab for the time chapter leaders are not teaching.)

But that’s rarely enough time to get the job done, chapter leaders said. “There’s not really a solid 45 minutes in the day that I can met with all the teachers at the same time, except at the end of the day, but that would require me asking teachers to stay later,” said Elana Eisen-Markowitz, the chapter leader at Bronx Academy of Letters. And asking teachers to stay outside of their contractual hours is, of course, exactly the request that Eisen-Markowitz is supposed to help them avoid.

The task is toughest for chapter leaders who consistently do not see eye to eye with administrators at their school.

“If you’re in a situation where the principal is very adversarial and just looking to get at teachers, the job of chapter leader can be extremely difficult and extremely taxing,” Eterno said.

In some cases, chapter leaders who speak out against problematic administrative practices end up as targets themselves. Retaliation might take the form of being assigned the toughest classes or not being offered overtime work, Eterno said.

“You start speaking up on a school leadership team, and the next thing you know you’re being observed 10 times and you’re getting letters in your file,” said union President Michael Mulgrew. “’Oh, I was great when I worked with you … but now all of a sudden I’m this horrible person because I told you [that] you were wrong about something you wanted to do?'”

Eterno said his relationship with his principal is positive now, but it hasn’t always been that way during his 17 years as a chapter leader. “If I didn’t have tenure, I could not have opened my mouth and spoken as I have over the years, because I would be gone,” he said.

By last year, Mulgrew said, the problem of retaliation against chapter leaders had grown acute, in part driven by a Department of Education policy under which teachers accused of misconduct were removed from their schools while disciplinary proceedings were underway.

“We saw a targeting of chapter leaders who were outspoken,” he said. “Chapter leaders all of a sudden were being brought up on — a lot of them — frivolous charges because they were outspoken or challenging principals.”

In response, the union passed a resolution that “reaffirms its historical commitment to use all legal means at its disposal … to defend its chapter leaders and delegates from illegal attacks by the DOE.”

The purpose of the resolution, Mulgrew said, was to “make it very clear to everyone: Chapter leader does not mean that you’re protected from doing bad things, but it [also] doesn’t mean because you’re doing your job, you should be attacked for it. … It’s basic unionism.”

Department of Education officials said chapter leaders do not face inappropriate discipline in response to their advocacy. A labor board that reviews retaliation complaints frequently rules in the department’s favor, said a spokeswoman, Connie Pankratz.

“Teachers accused of misconduct or charged with incompetence are treated the same regardless of whether or not they are chapter leaders,” she said.

Either way, it is clear that few teachers relish the prospect of putting themselves on the front lines of defending the union’s contract with the city. Many chapter leader elections are uncontested.

“I ran unopposed,” said Tara Pedersen, chapter leader at the Academy for Young Writers in Brooklyn. “At least in my school there really isn’t a huge amount of desire to have this role.”

“You have to be completely crazy and out of your mind to become a chapter leader,” Goldstein said. “It’s a lot of work and there’s not a lot of reward.”

defensor escolar

Memphis parent advocacy group trains first Spanish-speaking cohort

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Manuela Martinez (center left) and Lidia Sauceda (center right) are among 19 parents in the first Spanish-speaking class of Memphis Lift’s Public Advocate Fellowship.

Manuela Martinez doesn’t want Spanish-speaking families to get lost in the fast-changing education landscape in Memphis as the city’s Hispanic population continues to grow.

The mother of two students is among 19 parents in the first Spanish-speaking class of Memphis Lift’s Public Advocate Fellowship, a program that trains parents on local education issues.

“We want to be more informed,” said Martinez, whose children attend Shelby County Schools. “I didn’t know I had much of voice or could change things at my child’s school. But I’m learning a lot about schools in Memphis, and how I can be a bigger part.”

More than 200 Memphians have gone through the 10-week fellowship program since the parent advocacy group launched two years ago. The vast majority have been African-Americans.

The first Spanish-speaking cohort is completing a five-week program this month and marks a concerted effort to bridge racial barriers, said Sarah Carpenter, the organization’s executive director.

“Our mission is to make the powerless parent powerful …,” she said.

The city’s mostly black public schools have experienced a steady growth in Hispanic students since 1992 when only 286 attended the former Memphis City Schools. In 2015, the consolidated Shelby County Schools had 13,816 Hispanic children and teens, or 12.3 percent of the student population.

Lidia Sauceda came to Memphis from Mexico as a child; now she has two children who attend Shelby County Schools. Through Memphis Lift, she is learning about how to navigate Tennessee’s largest district in behalf of her family.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Hispanic parents attend a training with the Memphis Lift fellowship program.

“Latinos are afraid of talking, of standing up,” Sauceda said. “They’re so afraid they’re not going to be heard because of their legal status. But I will recommend this (fellowship) to parents. How do we want our kids to have a better education if we can’t dedicate time?”

The training includes lessons on local school options, how to speak publicly at a school board meeting, and how to advocate for your children if you believe they are being treated unfairly.

The first fellowship was led by Ian Buchanan, former director of community partnership for the state-run Achievement School District. Now the program is taught in-house, and the Spanish-speaking class is being led this month by Carmelita Hernandez, an alumna.

“No matter what language we speak, we want a high-quality education for our kids just like any other parent,” Hernandez said. “A good education leads to better opportunities.”

Stopping summer slide

On National Summer Learning Day, Memphis takes stock of programs for kids

PHOTO: Helen Carefoot
Torrence Echols, a rising first-grader in Memphis, builds a tower with giant legos at the Benjamin L. Hooks Library on National Summer Learning Day.

When it comes to summer learning, it’s been a better year for Memphis, where a range of new programs have helped to stem learning loss that hits hard in communities with a high number of low-income students.

On Thursday, Mayor Jim Strickland celebrated that work in conjunction with National Summer Learning Day and against the backdrop of the children’s reading room of the city’s main library.

He estimated that 10,000 children and teens are being reached this summer through learning programs spearheaded through Shelby County Schools, Literacy Mid-South, Memphis Public Libraries, churches and nonprofit organizations across the community.

That’s a record-breaking number, Strickland says, in a city with a lot of students struggling to meet state and local reading targets.

Summer learning loss, also known as summer slide, is the tendency for students to lose some of the knowledge and skills they gained during the school year. It’s a large contributor to the achievement gap, since children from low-income families usually don’t get the same summer enrichment opportunities as their more affluent peers. Compounded year after year, the gap widens to the point that, by fifth grade, many students can be up to three years behind in math and reading.

But this summer for the first time, Shelby County Schools offered summer learning academies across the city for students most in need of intervention. And Memphis also received a slice of an $8.5 million state grant to provide summer literacy camps at nine Memphis schools through Tennessee’s Read to be Ready initiative.

Literacy Mid-South used Thursday’s event to encourage Memphians to “drop everything and read!”

The nonprofit, which is providing resources this summer through about 15 organizations in Greater Memphis, is challenging students to log 1,400 minutes of summertime reading, an amount that research shows can mitigate learning loss and even increase test scores.

Reading is a problem for many students in Memphis and across Tennessee. Less than a third of third-graders in Shelby County Schools read on grade level, and the district is working to boost that rate to 90 percent by 2025 under its Destination 2025 plan.

The city of Memphis, which does not fund local schools, has made Memphis Public Libraries the focal point of its education work. This summer, the library is offering programs on everything from STEM and robotics to art and test prep.

Parents are a critical component, helping their kids to take advantage of books, programs and services that counter the doldrums of summer learning.

Soon after the mayor left the Benjamin L. Hooks Library on Thursday, Tammy Echols arrived with her son, Torrence, a rising first-grader at Levi Elementary School. Echols said they visit regularly to read books and do computer and math games.

“We always do a lot of reading and we’re working on learning sight words,” Echols said as she watched her son build a tower out of giant Lego blocks. “Torrence is a learning child and it’s easy to forget what you just learned if you’re not constantly reinforcing.”

You can find summer learning resources for families from the National Summer Learning Association.