anchors aweigh

Even with no model middle school, city expands literacy push

Greg Linton, an 8th grade humanities teacher at M.S. 266, takes notes on his school's literacy data.

Nearly a year after beginning their search for an exceptional middle school to lead a push to boost literacy in struggling schools, city officials have concluded that no school is good enough.

After the city launched its Middle School Quality Initiative last year, it selected two dozen underperforming schools to receive special training and thousands of dollars in program funding. Then it picked more successful schools to be “anchors” that would teach them. Washington Heights Expeditionary Learning School became a model for teacher collaboration, and schools were sent to M.S. 244 to learn about using data to detect signs that students are at-risk.

The city also wanted to push the 23 schools on literacy, where their students especially lagged. But officials said they could find no middle school strong enough to use as the emblem of the literacy initiative.

“There isn’t an anchor we could turn to to say, ‘Show us the magic of how it’s all done together,'” said Nancy Gannon, the department official overseeing MSQI.

Nonetheless, as MSQI expanded from 24 schools at first (six with only partial funding) to 49 this year, the department also expanded the initiative’s literacy program. The schools are getting extra funds and monthly trainings focused exclusively on literacy, in a program that officials consider it the most significant part of the citywide initiative.

The initiative to boost literacy takes inspiration from the recommendations of the Carnegie Corporation’s 2004 Reading Next report on elementary and middle school literacy best practices. The report calls for schools to assess students’ reading abilities more frequently, and offer students more strategic tutoring, intensive instruction on writing and reading comprehension instruction. It also calls for teachers to collaborate more in grade-level teams.

Many schools already use these strategies, but Gannon said they will see more gains from using them all at once, after combing through the results of students’ assessments.

It’s a departure from the way the department has handled professional development in the recent past. For the most part, the Bloomberg administration has left principals to choose the strategies they want their teachers to use, getting advice and sometimes strong recommendations from the networks they have chosen to support them. But the schools participating in MSQI are being told exactly which strategies to adopt.

In one major change, all of the MSQI schools are administering a standardized assessment called the “Degrees of Reading Power” three times this year to their sixth- and seventh-graders. Some city schools, particularly those in the Urban Assembly network, have already used the assessment to get details about students’ reading levels. But it has never been required.

Officials said they turned to the DRP assessment because it is a national exam that can diagnose students’ reading levels more consistently than the state’s reading exam, and with more detail.

Earlier this month, nine educators from six schools gathered for a training session. In pairs or alone at computers, the teachers hunkered down to pore over spreadsheets of data from their schools that included students’ names, their performance on the most recent state reading exam, and their “Degrees of Reading Power” scores.

On the spreadsheets, many of the middle school students’ rows were shaded red, meaning their performance was at or below a second-grade level. Chumney said she wanted to help the teachers draw meaningful conclusions from the data in front of them that afternoon without becoming overwhelmed by the number of underperforming students.

“When people open the screen they’re completely immersed in it, but it’s an emotional thing for them. Their child’s name is in red,” she said. “For many of our schools that’s a significant number of people. when they see it for the first time it can be really jolting.”

With that data, Gannon said the participating schools are learning how to help students at the high and low ends of the achievement spectrum. To do so, they are studying the areas where their students struggle, whether it is comprehension, coding, or fluency, and then giving them different supports, either through guided reading practice or use of a remedial program called the Wilson Reading System.

Among the schools that participated in MSQI last year, seventh and eighth graders’ literacy proficiency increased, from  36.5 to 43.3 percent for seventh graders, and from 35 to 39 percent for eighth graders, on the state’s annual English tests. But Gannon downplayed the gains, which were very slightly steeper than those seen across the city, noting that the state tests change every year and will become much more difficult in 2013, making the scores less useful than the DRP results.

At M.S. 22 in the Bronx, which participated in the literacy initiative last year, teachers adopted different supports for students just above and below proficiency on state tests, according to Omolade Otulaja, a special education teacher who sits on M.S. 22’s literacy team.

“With extra targeted instruction we were able to help the 2.5s move to a 3. And we were even able to move the 3.25s up a little,” Otulaja told the group of teachers at the training session. “We felt the students already had a tool box of skills, and it was just a matter of taking the kids to the next level. Once the students reached that 2.5 threshold, we were able to help that group make the biggest increases.”

Last year, the percentage of M.S. 22 students who scored proficient in reading inched upwards, from 11 percent to 14 percent. That improvement roughly matched the city’s overall increase in reading test scores.

Donalda Chumney, MSQI’s professional development coordinator, said M.S. 22 was setting a good example of the initiative’s philosophy of getting teachers to think about what students need based on their ability levels and the particular ways they excel or struggle.

“Saying we should be doing everything better with everyone all the time is a very tall order,” Chumney said. “If we can get people to the place where they chose a strategy and notice what happens in that class, then we see a lot more sustainable growth. [Teachers should be] thinking about which steps we’ve taken that have and haven’t yielded the outcomes we’ve wanted.”

To break out of a one-size-fits-all approach to literacy instruction with a limited staff, Otulaja said her school has set up “clinics” three days a week this year where students can get short bursts of one-on-one attention. “The challenge is definitely setting goals and making sure we’re creating more fluent, comprehensive readers,” she said.

According to Gannon, the literacy initiative’s secondary goal is to build the expertise of middle school teachers who teach literacy, but may not have much of a background in it.

“Many, many teachers are content specialists,” she said. “With the core group we’re building in reading expertise so students are more accurately diagnosed and supported.”

Gannon said schools would ideally use a one-on-one method, where students read aloud to the teacher to practice reading and assess comprehension skills, but “that takes an inordinate amount of time,” she said. “We’re advocating a quick assessment of what one needs to go deeper, and then looking at the subset that scores significantly below grade-level.”

At the training, Gillian Parker, a literacy lead teacher at M.S. 254, looked closely at the bars of red on her computer screen before turning to Eurgiena Douglas, her MSQI coach. This seminar was different from the typical professional development sessions Parker and her colleagues attend, Douglas explained, because she and the other teachers were working with real data from their schools, not samples.

“This confirmed my understanding that we have a considerably large amount of students reading below grade level. The next step is to address these areas of need,” Parker said, before launching into a litany of questions that, according to the department, no school has adequately answered about literacy.

“I see that there are issues, and I’m thinking how do we begin? Where do we begin? Once I get back to the building and reflect, I’ll share it with my staff and see what we need to do.”

call out

Our readers had a lot to say in 2017. Make your voice heard in 2018.

PHOTO: Chris Hill/Whitney Achievement School
Teacher Carl Schneider walks children home in 2015 as part of the after-school walking program at Whitney Achievement Elementary School in Memphis. This photograph went viral and inspired a First Person reflection from Schneider in 2017.

Last year, some of our most popular pieces came from readers who told their stories in a series that we call First Person.

For instance, Carl Schneider wrote about the 2015 viral photograph that showed him walking his students home from school in a low-income neighborhood of Memphis. His perspective on what got lost in the shuffle continues to draw thousands of readers.

First Person is also a platform to influence policy. Recent high school graduate Anisah Karim described the pressure she felt to apply to 100 colleges in the quest for millions of dollars in scholarships. Because of her piece, the school board in Memphis is reviewing the so-called “million-dollar scholar” culture at some high schools.

Do you have a story to tell or a point to make? In 2018, we want to give an even greater voice to students, parents, teachers, administrators, advocates and others who are trying to improve public education in Tennessee. We’re looking for essays of 500 to 750 words grounded in personal experience.

Whether your piece is finished or you just have an idea to discuss, drop a line to Community Editor Caroline Bauman at [email protected]

But first, check out these top First Person pieces from Tennesseans in 2017:

My high school told me to apply to 100 colleges — and I almost lost myself in the process

“A counselor never tried to determine what the absolute best school for me would be. I wasted a lot of time, money and resources trying to figure that out. And I almost lost myself in the process.” —Anisah Karim     

Why I’m not anxious about where my kids go to school — but do worry about the segregation that surrounds us

“In fact, it will be a good thing for my boys to learn alongside children who are different from them in many ways — that is one advantage they will have that I did not, attending parochial schools in a lily-white suburb.” —Mary Jo Cramb

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

“Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.” —Grace Tatter

I went viral for walking my students home from school in Memphis. Here’s what got lost in the shuffle.

“When #blacklivesmatter is a controversial statement; when our black male students have a one in three chance of facing jail time; when kids in Memphis raised in the bottom fifth of the socioeconomic bracket have a 2.6 percent chance of climbing to the top fifth — our walking students home does not fix that, either.” —Carl Schneider

I think traditional public schools are the backbone of democracy. My child attends a charter school. Let’s talk.

“It was a complicated choice to make. The dialogue around school choice in Nashville, though, doesn’t often include much nuance — or many voices of parents like me.” —Aidan Hoyal

I grew up near Charlottesville and got a misleading education about Civil War history. Students deserve better.

“In my classroom discussions, the impetus for the Civil War was resigned to a debate over the balance of power between federal and state governments. Slavery was taught as a footnote to the cause of the war.” —Laura Faith Kebede

Weekend Reads

Need classroom decor inspiration? These educators have got you covered.

This school year, students will spend about 1,000 hours in school —making their classrooms a huge part of their learning experience.

We’re recognizing educators who’ve poured on the pizazz to make students feel welcome. From a 9th-grade “forensics lab” decked out in caution tape to a classroom stage complete with lights to get first graders pumped about public speaking, these crafty teachers have gone above and beyond to create great spaces.

Got a classroom of your own to show off? Know someone that should be on this list? Let us know!

Jaclyn Flores, First Grade Dual Language, Rochester, New York
“Having a classroom that is bright, cheerful, organized and inviting allows my students to feel pride in their classroom as well as feel welcome. My students look forward to standing on the stage to share or sitting on special chairs to dive into their learning. This space is a safe place for my students and we take pride in what it has become.”

Jasmine, Pre-K, Las Vegas, Nevada
“My classroom environment helps my students because providing calming colors and a home-like space makes them feel more comfortable in the classroom and ready to learn as first-time students!”

 

Oneika Osborne, 10th Grade Reading, Miami Southridge Senior High School, Miami, Florida
“My classroom environment invites all of my students to constantly be in a state of celebration and self-empowerment at all points of the learning process. With inspirational quotes, culturally relevant images, and an explosion of color, my classroom sets the tone for the day every single day as soon as we walk in. It is one of optimism, power, and of course glitter.”

Kristen Poindexter, Kindergarten, Spring Mill Elementary School, Indianapolis, Indiana
“I try very hard to make my classroom a place where memorable experiences happen. I use songs, finger plays, movement, and interactive activities to help cement concepts in their minds. It makes my teacher heart so happy when past students walk by my classroom and start their sentence with, “Remember when we…?”. We recently transformed our classroom into a Mad Science Lab where we investigated more about our 5 Senses.”

 

Brittany, 9th Grade Biology, Dallas, Texas
“I love my classroom environment because I teach Biology, it’s easy to relate every topic back to Forensics and real-life investigations! Mystery always gets the students going!”

 

Ms. Heaton, First Grade, Westampton, New Jersey
“As an educator, it is my goal to create a classroom environment that is positive and welcoming for students. I wanted to create a learning environment where students feel comfortable and in return stimulates student learning. A classroom is a second home for students so I wanted to ensure that the space was bright, friendly, and organized for the students to be able to use each and every day.”

D’Essence Grant, 8th Grade ELA, KIPP Houston, Houston, Texas
“Intentionally decorating my classroom was my first act of showing my students I care about them. I pride myself on building relationships with my students and them knowing I care about them inside and outside of the classroom. Taking the time to make the classroom meaningful and creative as well building a safe place for our community helps establish an effective classroom setting.”

 

Jayme Wiertzema, Elementary Art, Worthington, Minnesota
“I’m looking forward to having a CLASSROOM this year. The past two years I have taught from a cart and this year my amazing school district allowed me to have a classroom in our school that is busting at the seams! I’m so excited to use my classroom environment to inspire creativity in my students, get to know them and learn from their amazing imaginations in art class!”

 

Melissa Vecchio, 4th Grade, Queens, New York
“Since so much of a student’s time is spent inside their classroom, the environment should be neat, organized, easy to move around in but most of all positive. I love to use a theme to reinforce great behavior. I always give the students a choice in helping to design bulletin boards and desk arrangements. When they are involved they take pride in the classroom, and enjoy being there.”