Future of Schools

Daniels, Peterson recall the birth of charter schools at Mind Trust event

PHOTO: Scott Elliott
Kevin Chavous (left) leads a panel discussion with former Indianapolis Mayor Bart Peterson (center) and former Gov. Mitch Daniels.

Former Democratic Indianapolis Mayor Bart Peterson and former Republican Gov. Mitch Daniels reminisced tonight about their efforts to promote change in education at an event celebrating more than a decade of school reform in Indiana.

The dinner and panel discussion, sponsored by The Mind Trust, attracted a full house of 750 invitees to the Indiana Roof Ballroom. The crowd included many key players who pushed for change in education since Peterson was first elected in 2000 and served until 2008. Daniels’ election as governor followed in 2004. He left after two terms in 2012 to become president of Purdue University.

Kevin Chavous, an Indianapolis native and former Washington, D.C., city councilman who co-founded Democrats for Education Reform, moderated a discussion with Peterson and Daniels. He called the changes Daniels pushed through the Indiana legislature in 2011 — expanding charter schools, instituting tougher teacher evaluation, limiting teacher union bargaining and launching a private school tuition voucher program — “the most wide-ranging reform we’ve ever seen in America.”

Daniels pointed out that it took him seven years before the political environment was right for those changes, but that he tried to accomplish many of his biggest goals for education at once when the moment arrived.

“We tried to shoot the moon,” he said. “We thought we had to address all of them to make a difference for Indiana’s kids.”

Peterson said he pushed for the law that legalized charter schools — the earliest schools opened in 2002 — in hopes of finding a middle ground in the feud between traditional school district loyalists resisting change and business leaders demanding it.

“I believed charter schools could be a vehicle for finding that sort of elusive consensus around improving education,” he said.

The data was unmistakable, Peterson said: not enough Indianapolis kids were graduating with a high-quality education.

“You had to accept that something had to change,” he said.

What resulted was Peterson became the first mayor in the country with the power to sponsor charter schools, a surprise for a Democrat. His successor, Republican Greg Ballard, is still the only mayor with that ability.

“It was a terrific idea,” Peterson said. “I wish we could see more cities do this throughout the country.”

Both men spoke of the difficult politics of school reform, but said they were satisfied by the results of the changes they pushed for.

Peterson said Democratic opposition to charter schools, for example, is mostly in state legislatures. In cities like Indianapolis, it’s common to find Democrats who back them. And, he pointed out, Democratic presidents Barack Obama and Bill Clinton both were strong charter school supporters.

“The politics of education reform are pretty fascinating,” Peterson said.

Daniels argued that school choice has made education better for those who need it the most.

“Private choice, to me, has always been, first and last, a matter of social justice,” he said. “I accept, I believe and I think we’ve seen the economic argument that public school choice will improve all schools.”

Struggling Detroit schools

The list of promises is long: Arts, music, robotics, gifted programs and more. Will Detroit schools be able to deliver?

PHOTO: Detroit Public Television
Detroit schools Superintendent Nikolai Vitti answers questions at a community meeting in Detroit.

Arts. Music. Robotics. Programs for gifted kids. New computers. New textbooks. Dual enrollment programs that let high school students take college classes. International Baccalaureate. Advanced Placement.

They’re all on the list of things that Detroit schools Superintendent Nikolai Vitti told a group of community members assembled in a Brightmoor neighborhood church that he would introduce or expand as soon as next school year.

Vitti didn’t get into the specifics of how the main Detroit district would find the money or partnerships needed to deliver on all of those promises, but they’re part of the plan for the future, he said.

The comments came in a question and answer session last month with students, parents and community members following Vitti’s appearance on Detroit Public Television’s American Black Journal/One Detroit Roadshow. The discussion was recorded at City Covenant Church. DPTV is one of Chalkbeat’s partners in the Detroit Journalism Cooperative.

Vitti has been appearing at community events since taking over the Detroit schools last spring. He is scheduled next week to join officials from two of the city’s major charter school authorizers, Central Michigan University and Grand Valley State University, at a State of the Schools address on October 25.

 

Watch the full Q&A with Vitti below.

recipe for success

Eva Moskowitz looks back at her turn away from district schools, as she plans for 100 schools of her own

PHOTO: Alex Zimmerman
Eva Moskowitz speaks to students at the 2016 "Slam the Exam" rally.

Eva Moskowitz didn’t always aspire to be a champion of alternatives to the city’s public schools.

During an interview at a Chalkbeat breakfast event on Thursday, the high-profile — and often controversial — CEO of Success Academy Charter Schools explained her evolution from what she described as an “FDR Democrat” who believed the traditional school system was flawed but could be improved to an outspoken critic trying to lead an educational revolution from the outside.

Her transformation didn’t come from “reading Milton Friedman,” the free-market economist, she said. Instead, she described a gradual disillusionment with the traditional school system that began when she was a student at a Harlem elementary school, which she said was effectively “warehousing children,” and continued when she was a city councilwoman scrutinizing the city’s contract with the teachers union. (She claimed the union’s pushback against her contract probe made her feel like she was in one of the “Godfather” films.)

Success Academy is New York City’s largest charter school network, with 46 schools and 15,500 students. The network which mostly serves black and Hispanic children  has extremely high test scores, which critics argue are largely the result of intense test preparation and strict discipline policies that push out the hardest-to-serve students.

Moskowitz and her schools have been the target of criticism from Mayor Bill de Blasio, who made challenges to charter schools a tenet of his first campaign, and Moskowitz a particular target (he said she should not be “tolerated, enabled, supported”). She has fought back fiercely, staging rallies and protests and demanding that de Blasio provide the charter sector with space for its classrooms.

Her clash with City Hall is in marked contrast with that of Michael Mulgrew, president of the city teachers union, who two years ago explained to the audience at a similar Chalkbeat breakfast what it is like to work with an ally in City Hall.

Moskowitz laid out for her breakfast audience her aggressive expansion plans  which she said she intends to pursue despite de Blasio’s resistance. She estimates the charter sector will serve about 200,000 students in four years (out of the total 1.1 million public school students in New York City) and wants to expand Success Academy to reach 100 schools.

Moskowitz recently released a memoir, which is full of personal details about her history and explains the backstory of Success Academy. She remains a pugnacious advocate for her cause, continuing to take on the unions and the mayor, while arguing that parent choice is central to making schools more equitable.

Here are some takeaways from the event, which was held at the Roosevelt House in Manhattan.  

She decided early on that many district schools are failures.

Moskowitz attended a public elementary school in Harlem, where she said she and her brother were the only white students in the school. She described what she calls the “warehousing of children” and dubbed it “expensive babysitting.” When she attended Stuyvesant High School, she said, she had a French teacher who didn’t speak French and a physics teacher who was sometimes intoxicated.

As a teenager, she started helping Cambodian refugees find schools. In the neighborhoods they could afford, the schools were “God awful,” she said, while nicer schools were in neighborhoods out of their price range.

“It did stick with me that you were totally screwed if you didn’t live on the right side of the street,” Moskowitz said.  

She believes unions and their contracts are a big part of the problem.

Ninety percent of schools “are not working at the most basic level,” Moskowitz said, a dysfunction that she argued is partly due to the rules in teacher and principal contracts.

After becoming chairwoman of the City Council’s education committee in 2002, Moskowitz held hearings on every aspect of the school system including toilet paper. But her biggest showdown came when she decided to tackle the teachers union contract, she said.

“It is not a genteel sport when you take on the teachers union,” she said. “I had never felt like I was living a ‘Godfather’ movie before I took on the unions. It was a very scary undertaking.”

She envisions continued growth for the charter sector, but would not be pinned down on how large it would grow.

Though she has aggressive goals to expand Success, Moskowitz wouldn’t say what percentage of the city’s public schools should be charter schools. She called it a “hypothetical debate” and wouldn’t make a prediction for the future, saying she doesn’t have a “crystal ball.”

Parent choice is at the heart of her philosophy.

Moskowitz said parent choice is “fundamental” and the best bet for ensuring school qualify. Parents also are a bulwark, Moskowitz argued, to ensure  that charter schools — which are run by private boards — will be responsive to the public will.  

She also thinks charter schools should be held accountable for results.

Although charter schools are freed from some bureaucracy, they are highly regulated and do not operate in “some libertarian universe,” she said. She said she holds her own schools to account, believing that she should not increase the number of Success Academy schools unless all are high-quality.

She “urged caution” about trying to engineer diversity at charter schools.

Moskowitz thinks districts can “get the social engineering wrong” when they try to integrate schools by methods such as forced admission or busing. Instead, she argued, parents should be the engine that drives integration in charter schools through their ability to choose which schools their children attend.

The city should concentrate on integrating district schools, where admission to most elementary schools is based on the zones families live in, she said.

“I’m not sure we should put our energy into fixing charters on this front when they are already a much more open, accessible system than the zoned system,” Moskowitz said.