Future of Schools

Indiana dodges NCLB waiver bullet, for now

PHOTO: Alan Petersime

Indiana today got a one-year reprieve from possible penalties from the U.S. Department of Education.

Those penalties, including the loss of control over more than $200 million in federal aid that goes to local schools, wouldn’t happen before June 30 of 2015.

“Its a good thing for students and schools,” said Claire Fiddian-Green, the co-director of Gov. Mike Pence’s Center for Education and Career Innovation.

State superintendent Glenda Ritz also hailed the decision, saying it signaled her department’s work met fedral standards and put Indiana clearly on a path toward a long-term renewal of the waiver.

“Today’s decision by the U.S. Department of Education validates the work that we done,” she said.

Losing the waiver, releasing it from some of the rules of the federal No Child Left Behind Law, would have meant a share of money that now funds programs, pays salaries and otherwise supports efforts to raise student test scores could be taken away to be used for other services, such as hiring outside tutors to work with low-scoring children. Schools would likely have had to cut back on some services.

No Child Left Behind, signed in 2002, required states to establish testing and accountability systems to raise all children to proficiency in math and English. But test score growth expectations in NCLB that many states complained were unrealistically tough led President Obama’s administration to permit “waivers” from some of those rules.

Indiana was approved to use its own A to F school grading system for accountability under the waiver and pledged to adopt the Common Core academic standards to meet a requirement to follow standards that would produce graduates who are “college- and career-ready.”

In May the federal education department raised concerns that Indiana was not staying true to the 2012 waiver agreement. State officials now have 10 more months to convince federal officials they are in line with the promises they made. If they can, they could get the waiver extended for more multiple years.

One issue the U.S. Department of Education wants more explanation about is how thoroughly Indiana’s teacher and principal evaluation system measures and rewards improved student test scores and whether it ensures all schools meet its standards.

Some advocates who pushed for tougher evaluation when a law overhauling teacher evaluation passed in 2011 were disappointed this year when nearly all teachers were rated effective, just as they generally were in the past. The first results of the new system in May showed 97 percent of teachers statewide were rated effective or highly effective. Critics said it was implausible that so few teachers were ineffective.

Two factors may have helped those numbers stay high. Ritz allowed school districts last year to measure teachers less on their students’ test results and more on observations and other factors, citing online testing problems in 2013. Also, there was an exception to the 2011 law that allowed some school districts to delay using the new evaluation system until their union contracts expired. About 40 of Indiana’s 290 districts are still operating under old contracts and following their prior systems.

The extension means the state was not raised to “high risk” status, as some feared it might be, suggesting federal officials have higher confidence that their concerns can be resolved here than they do in four states that have been placed on that highest level of alert.

One state, Washington, saw its waiver revoked earlier this year.

Indiana’s waiver concerns reignited an ongoing debate between state Superintendent Glenda Ritz and Republican elected leaders, especially Pence, over who controls, and should answer for, Indiana’s education policy decisions.

In May, Assistant U.S. Secretary of Education Deb Delisle sent a letter to Ritz giving her 60 days to explain how Indiana would resolve concerns by federal officials on three fronts: whether its new standards and new tests were in line with federal expectations, whether Ritz was adequately monitoring low-scoring schools and whether teacher evaluation was working properly.

It appears the first two questions are resolved, and while there are questions about teacher evaluation, no conditions were placed on the waiver.

The Indiana State Board of Education, an 11-member body chaired by Ritz but otherwise appointed by Republican governors, in July passed a resolution critical of the Indiana education department’s thoroughness and accuracy in crafting the waiver. Ritz has said she feels those complaints, along with a critique of the Indiana Department of Education’s waiver extension proposal submitted to federal officials by CECI, were unfounded and put Indiana’s chances of keeping the waiver in jeopardy.

The state board is expected to discuss next steps when it meets on Wednesday.

another path

‘They’re my second family.’ Largest Pathways to Graduation class earn their diplomas

Jasmine Byrd receives an award for excellence after giving a speech to her fellow graduates.

Before last fall, Jasmine Byrd never envisioned herself striding across the stage to receive a diploma at a graduation ceremony.

But then Byrd moved to the Bronx from Utah and entered New York City’s Pathways to Graduation program, which helps 17- to 21-year-olds who didn’t graduate from a traditional high school earn a High School Equivalency Diploma by giving them free resources and support.

Just walking into this space and being like, this is what you’ve accomplished and this is what you’ve worked hard for is a great feeling,” said Byrd, who also credits the program with helping her snag a web development internship. “I’ve built my New York experience with this program. They’re my second family, sometimes my first when I needed anything.”

Byrd is one of about 1,700 students to graduate during the 2017-2018 school year from Pathways, the program’s largest graduating class to date, according to officials.  

This year, students from 102 countries and 41 states graduated from Pathways, which is part of District 79, the education department district overseeing programs for older students who have had interrupted schooling.

The program also saw the most students ever participate in its graduation ceremony, a joyful celebration held this year at the Bronx United Palace Theater. According to Robert Evans, a math teacher at one of the program’s five boroughwide sites and emcee of the graduation, about 600 students typically show up to walk the stage. But students can be a part of the ceremony even if they received their passing test results that morning, and this year more than 800 graduates attended.

There were still students coming in last night to take photos and to pick up their sashes and gowns,” said Evans.

The graduation ceremony is unique in part because the program is. Students who have not completed high school attend classes to prepare to take the high school equivalency exam. But the program also prepares students to apply for college, attend vocational school, or enter the workforce by providing help applying for colleges, creating resumes and other coaching.

To make sure that the program is accessible to all students, there’s a main site in every borough and 92 satellite sites, located in community centers and youth homeless shelters like Covenant House. Students who want to work in the medical field, like Genesis Rocio Rodriguez, can take their courses in hospitals. Rodriguez, who graduated in December, is now enrolled in the Borough of Manhattan Community College, and passing the exam meant being one step closer to her dream of becoming a nurse.

When I got my results I was with my classmate, and to be honest I thought I failed because I was so nervous during it. But then I went online, and I was like, ‘Oh my gosh I did it!’ My mom started crying and everything.”

Byrd said the program worked for her because of the supportive teachers and extra resources.

“The teachers are relatable,” said Byrd. “They don’t put on an act, they don’t try to separate the person from the teacher. They really reach out, even call you to get you out of bed in the morning.”

Carmine Guirland said the supportive environment of social workers, guidance counselors, and teachers is what attracts him to the work at Bronx NeOn, a site where students who are on probation or who are involved with the court system can prepare for the exam, college, and careers.

When students are on parole they will have really involved [parole officers] who would text me at the beginning of class to check in so that we could work together,” said Guirland. “It’s really about that village thing. The more support systems that are available the more success the students will have.”

Reflecting on his experiences with the graduating class, Guirland’s most treasured memory was when one of his students proposed to his girlfriend in a guidance counseling session. Even though they aren’t together anymore, the moment was a reflection of the relationships that many of the students build during their time at Pathways to Graduation.

“It’s this amazing high moment where this student felt like the most comfortable place for him to propose to his girlfriend and the mother of his child was in our advisory circle,” said Guirland.

New Standards

Tennessee updates science standards for first time in 10 years. New guidelines stress class discussion, inquiry

PHOTO: Rebecca Griesbach
Fourth grade science teachers Lamarcus Marks, of Rivercrest Elementary, and Angie Clement, of Bartlett Elementary, test out a lesson on kinetic and potential energy at Arlington High School, one of 11 statewide sites where Tennessee teachers are training for next year's new science standards.

How can a wolf change the river? Why doesn’t a cactus have leaves? Why can’t you exterminate bats in Tennessee?

With new state science standards coming to classrooms next fall, these are the kinds of questions students will explore in their science classes. They’ll be tasked not only with memorizing the answers, but also with asking questions of their own, engaging on the topic with their teacher and classmates, and applying what they learn across disciplines. That’s because the changes set forth are as much about teaching process, as they are about teaching content.

“At the lowest level, I could just teach you facts,” said Detra Clark, who is one of about 300 Tennessee educators leading teacher trainings on the new standards to her peers from across the state. “Now it’s like, ‘I want you to figure out why or how you can use the facts to figure out a problem.’”

PHOTO: Rebecca Griesbach
Detra Clark, a science coach in Shelby County’s iZone, demonstrates a sample lesson for sixth grade science teachers.

On Wednesday, Clark — a science coach for the iZone, a group of underperforming schools that Shelby County Schools is looking to turn around — unpacked for her peers, who gathered at Arlington High School, a key component of the new material: three-dimensional modeling. Under three-dimensional modeling, students should be able to do something with the content they learn, not just memorize it.

In recent years, Tennessee students have performed better on state science tests than on their math and English exams. But state science standards for grades K–12 haven’t been updated since 2008. By contrast, math and English benchmarks have undergone more recent changes. To give the stakeholders time to adjust, results from next year’s science test, the first to incorporate the new standards, won’t count for students, teachers, or schools.

At the training session, Clark, standing before a room of sixth-grade science teachers, held up a chart with the names of woodland animals, such as elk and deer. Under each name, she tracked the population over time.

“At our starting population, what do we see?” she asked.

“The deer, it decreases again because it’s introduced to a predator,” a teacher responded.

“More resources, more surviving animals” another teacher chimed in.

“How can we explain what happened in year two, when we’re dealing with students?” Clark asked the group.

“The population went up,” a teacher said.

“They start to reproduce!” another teacher interjected.

Clark nodded.

In another classroom, this one composed of kindergarten teachers, Bridget Davis — a K-2 instructional advisor for Shelby County Schools — clicked through a video of fuzzy critters, each paired with a close relative, such as two different breeds of dogs.

PHOTO: Rebecca Griesbach
In a teacher training session on Wednesday, kindergarten teachers highlight the three dimensions of three-dimensional modeling, a key part of new state science standards.

She encouraged the teachers to ask their students what traits the animals shared.

“The first thing they’re going to say is, ‘Well, one’s big and one’s small,” she said. “What we really want them to say is, ‘Well, their fur is the same color,’ or, ‘Mom has a patch of black hair here and the baby doesn’t.’ We want them to look at detail.”

She added, “We want them to get used to being a detective.”

The science standards that have been in place for the past decade fulfills the first dimension of three-dimensional modeling.

Doing something with that knowledge satisfies the second dimension, and the third dimension requires teachers to apply to their lessons a “cross-cutting concept” — strategies that students can apply to any subject, like identifying patterns or sequences.

Under the existing standards, a student may not have been introduced to physical science until the third grade. But starting next year, Tennessee schoolchildren will learn about life science, physical science, earth and space science, and engineering applications, beginning in kindergarten and continuing through high school.

“I do believe that this is the best our standards have ever been, because of the fact that they are so much more detailed than they have been in the past,” Davis said.

About a thousand Shelby County teachers made their way to trainings this week, which were free and open to all educators. Several administrators also met to discuss ways they can ensure the new standards are implemented in their schools.

As with anything new, Jay Jennings — an assistant principal at a Tipton county middle school and an instructor at Wednesday’s training — expects some pushback. But he’s optimistic that his district will have every teacher at benchmark by the end of the 2018–2019 school year.

“We talked before about teachers knowing content, and that’s important,” he said. “But what we want to see is kids knowing content and questioning content. We want to see them involved.”

He reminded other school leaders about last year’s changes to English and math standards, a transition that he said was challenging but smoother than expected.  

“Teachers are going to go out of their comfort zone,” he explained. “But it’s not changing what a lot of them are already doing.”