Parent Academy

Detroit parents can take classes in clipping coupons and writing resumes. Will they sign up?

PHOTO: Getty Images
Detroit parents say they have new careers, stronger bonds with their children and are more involved in schools because of Parent Academy

Detroit’s main school district launched a major new initiative this spring, offering scores of new classes that aren’t for students, but for their parents.

Held at schools and libraries across the city, parents can sign up for classes to learn to become event-planners or to launch their own home-based business. There are classes to help children with homework, to learn to style children’s hair, and to cope with grief and loss. There’s even a course on how to save extra cash by clipping coupons.

All classes are free and open to parents, caregivers and community members, but the Parent Academy program seems to be off to a slow start — a very slow start.  

A Chalkbeat reporter stopped by three classes last week, selected at random, and found no students attending any of them.

That doesn’t mean all of the classes are empty. Sharlonda Buckman, who heads the district’s office of Family and Community Engagement, said that about 350 parents have either taken a class since they began in April, or signed up for one in May or June.

Programs like the Parent Academy are common across the country as districts increasingly recognize the importance of getting parents to be active in schools.

But the low turnout so far illustrates the challenges facing Detroit school leaders as they try to turn around a struggling school system by introducing new programs.

Research shows that students who get more support at home are more likely to succeed academically. And, if parents feel more connected with their child’s school, they’ll be more likely to volunteer and to recommend the school to friends and neighbors. That’s important in a city where parents can choose from dozens of district, charter and suburban school options for their children.

The main Detroit district has attempted to lure parents with things like resume-writing classes in the past. The district, under the control of an emergency manager, launched a Parent University in 2014.

But the Parent Academy, which has a stated goal of helping parents “support students academically, socially, and emotionally,” is a much more robust effort, offering more than 200 classes in more than 50 subjects between April and June, with more classes planned for the summer and for next year.

“We’re trying to build relationships with parents,” said Yolanda Eddins, a program director in the district’s Family and Community Engagement Office who teaches some of the classes. “We’re trying to get them to re-engage with the schools.”

The district is paying for the program with the help of a $3 million, three-year grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (Kellogg is also a Chalkbeat funder). The money funds a number of parent-focused initiatives including a school home visit program that helps connect educators with their students, and a kindergarten bootcamp, which will run this summer to help prepare young children to start school.

Eddins said she averages about 10 parents per class.

Another Parent Academy instructor, Destinee Ray-Williams, a parent engagement officer for the district, said of the handful of classes she’s attended, the largest class has drawn about eight parents.

But Buckman said she expects parent interest to grow as more parents become aware of it. Parents can still sign up for spring classes, or they can show up unregistered.

“There has been almost 100 courses offered” so far,  she said. “Some of them just didn’t work, and we had to cancel, the schools couldn’t do it, etc. We have to do more marketing and recruitment.”

The classes were created based on 4,000 responses to surveys that were given to parents last fall.

“We put classes out there based on what parents wanted,” Buckman said.

Buckman said she and her staff will gauge parent interest before adding more classes for the summer, and they will keep tabs on times and locations that are most popular to help increase participation.

“We have the volume and variety,” Buckman said. “We need to marry that with a more robust marketing campaign. We are really intentionally building the parent body across the district.”

A resume building workshop and classes that help parents as their children transition from one grade to the next have been popular, Eddins said.

“Parents have been very interested in the event planning certification classes,” Eddins said. “One parent started tearing up, she was so excited.”

Here’s the course catalog:


Michigan’s ‘band-aid’ for filling teaching jobs is expanding. Here’s what you need to know.

PHOTO: Koby Levin
Teachers welcome students to the Southwest Detroit Community School on the first day of school. Seven of the charter's 31 educators last year entered the profession through a fast-track training program.

There aren’t enough qualified teachers to fill classrooms across Michigan — and especially in Detroit. That’s why state officials have opened the door to a controversial way of filling classrooms, loosening restrictions on so-called alternative certifications for educators.

In addition to Teachers of Tomorrow, a fast-track, for-profit teacher certification program that began placing teachers with virtually no classroom experience in schools this year, another for-profit company, #T.E.A.C.H., was recently approved to help expand the state’s teacher pipeline. They’ve joined long-running nonprofit programs like Teach for America, whose corps members typically get some in-classroom training and more hours of teaching classes.

If the expansion continues, it could change the face of schools across the state, in cities like Detroit most of all. In states like Texas — home to Teachers of Tomorrow — nearly half of new teachers take non-traditional routes to certification.

As policymakers gear up for a tug of war over teacher certification, Chalkbeat obtained last year’s teacher certification data for the entire state. The data, alongside interviews with experts in teacher training, painted a picture of where we are now — and where we might be headed.

It shows that teachers with alternative certification are concentrated in Detroit, largely at charter schools, and that they’re disproportionately at a handful of schools.

Scroll down for a list of schools in Michigan that employed at least one teacher with an interim certification last year.

But first — what is alternative certification, again?

In short, it’s an express lane into the teaching profession. Michigan teachers have traditionally attended teacher certification programs that require them to student teach in an actual classroom. By contrast, Michigan’s alternative certification route, which was created under former Gov. Jennifer Granholm, allows anyone with a bachelor’s degree and a 3.0 GPA to start teaching after taking a few courses online and passing a test in the subject they hope to teach. Unlike traditional teacher colleges, these programs don’t require any in-classroom training.

After three years on the job, teachers with alternative certifications can become fully certified if their principal signs off.

This fast-track arrangement is not unusual — almost every U.S. state offers an accelerated route into teaching. But some are much more widely used than others.

The vast majority of Michigan educators still come from traditional, four- or five-year teacher training programs.

It’s not even close. When the state Legislature allowed for an alternate route to teacher certification nearly a decade ago, the policy was billed as an important tool in the struggle to alleviate a statewide teacher shortage. But the 248 educators with “interim certifications” who were employed in Michigan last year amount to little more than a blip in a statewide teacher corps of about 100,000.

A few controversial for-profit certification programs, which were approved to operate in Michigan for the first time last year, hope to change that. Teachers of Tomorrow, whose graduates have begun finding work in Michigan schools, certifies tens of thousands of teachers in 12 states.  And in a promotional video on its website, #T.E.A.C.H, promises to help would-be educators “start teaching almost immediately.” It allows teachers to complete their online training after they have started working in the classroom.

Teachers who go through an alternative certification program are heavily concentrated in Detroit.

Research shows that poor students of color in the U.S. are more likely to be taught by a teacher with an alternative certification. That holds true in Michigan. Two-thirds of the teachers certified through a non-traditional program in the state teach in the city of Detroit, where most students are poor and black or Latino.

This may be because Detroit schools are more willing to hire them. Less than one-twentieth of Michigan’s more than 3,000 schools don’t employ a single teacher with an interim certification. About one-third of Detroit’s schools do.

To be sure, the statewide teacher shortage is particularly punishing in Detroit, where poverty and large class sizes make working in the classroom more difficult. Alternative certification programs have focused their recruiting efforts in the city in an attempt to help fill the gap.

Across the country, cities “are where it’s hardest to get conventional teachers,” said Chester Finn, a senior fellow at the Thomas Fordham Institute, a conservative think tank that has published studies of alternative certification. “Cities are also often where people from Teach for America and other idealistic programs are likely to want to teach.”

Critics say that lowering the barriers to entry into the teaching profession won’t address the deeper problems that plague Detroit schools. And they worry that this quick fix comes with unintended consequences.

“It’s really more like a band-aid, as opposed to addressing the larger issue,” said Christopher Crowley, a professor of teacher education at Wayne State University. “These are experiments, and they’re being tested on certain populations and not others.”

Teachers with alternative certifications can be effective.

It is very difficult to determine whether teachers who take this route perform any worse than their peers, partly because the accelerated programs vary widely in the amount of training and support they give new teachers. Armen Hratchian, director of Teach for America in Detroit, says its program allows teachers to be successful with fewer hours of in-classroom training — known as student teaching — that is common at traditional teacher colleges.

“To help meet the highest standard of teaching here in Michigan, TFA teachers spend over 400 pre-service hours training over the summer, continue to receive intensive coaching and development throughout their first two years, and are monitored and credentialed by the University of Michigan,” he said in an email.

But they are far more likely to leave the profession.

There’s little doubt that teachers who use alternative certification are more likely to leave the profession within a few years. Schools that fill vacancies with such teachers can find themselves in a “vicious cycle” of never-ending hiring, said Desiree Carver-Thomas, an education researcher at the non-partisan Learning Policy Institute, which last month published a list of best practices for combating teacher shortages that does not include alternative certification.

“Most states have been struggling to address teacher shortages for several years, often filling the vacuum with underprepared teachers,” the report reads.

Charter schools hire more teachers with alternative certifications than traditional schools.

Last year, 130 teachers with alternative certification were in charter schools compared with 105 at traditional schools in Michigan. A handful of charter schools have an especially high concentration of these teachers. At the Jalen Rose Leadership Academy, a tiny charter high school on the city’s northern border, nearly half of the 25 teachers at the school last year had not attended a traditional teaching program.

“As the teacher shortage continues to be an ongoing issue, I am always looking to find creative ways to find qualified candidates,” said Wendie Lewis, principal of the Jalen Rose Leadership Academy, in an email. In her experience, teachers who arrive at the school via programs like Teach for America are actually more apt to stay than traditionally certified teachers, perhaps because they promise at the outset to teach for two years.

There are lots of other ways to fight the teacher shortage.

Experts recommend raising salaries, trying to coax retired teachers back onto the job, forgiving student loans for teachers, offering new teachers more mentorship — and the list goes on.

Local governments, philanthropies, and companies have also pitched in, sweetening the deal for teachers by offering discounts on houses and cars for educators in Detroit.

And school leaders in Detroit are already going to extraordinary lengths to fill their classrooms.

Most recently, the city’s main district announced a partnership with the University of Michigan and the Kresge Foundation to, among other things, build a new “cradle to career” school that will feature a beefed-up teacher training program. The idea, in part, is that better-trained, better-supported teachers are more likely to stay in the profession. The district has said it won’t rule out hiring teachers from alternative certification programs, but Superintendent Nikolai Vitti has made clear that he prefers teachers with more training.

“We have to get out of the days of taking any adult that has some education and some certification and placing them in a school, and go to a model where we actually teach teachers how to teach,” Vitti said as he announced the new school on Thursday.

Here’s a list of schools where teachers with alternative certifications were working in Michigan during the 2017-18 school year:

School # Teachers w/ Alt. Cert. Type of school City
Jalen Rose Leadership Academy 11 Charter Detroit
Central High School 9 Traditional Detroit
Voyageur College Prep 8 Charter Detroit
Denby High School 7 Traditional Detroit
Detroit Edison Public School Academy 7 Charter Detroit
MacDowell Preparatory Academy 7 Charter Detroit
Mumford High School 7 Traditional Detroit
Southwest Detroit Community School 7 Charter Detroit
Detroit Enterprise Academy 6 Charter Detroit
Henry Ford Academy: School for Creative Studies (PSAD) 6 Charter Detroit
Voyageur Academy 6 Charter Detroit
Henry Ford Academy: School for Creative Studies – Elementary 5 Charter Detroit
Burns Elementary-Middle School 4 Traditional Detroit
Law Elementary School 4 Traditional Detroit
Southeastern High School 4 Traditional Detroit
Cass Technical High School 3 Traditional Detroit
Cesar Chavez High School 3 Charter Detroit
Clippert Academy 3 Traditional Detroit
Detroit Innovation Academy 3 Charter Detroit
Detroit Leadership Academy Elementary 3 Charter Detroit
Detroit Leadership Academy Middle/High 3 Charter Detroit
Ford High School 3 Traditional Detroit
Pansophia Academy 3 Charter Coldwater
Washington-Parks Academy 3 Charter Redford
Beecher High School 2 Traditional Mount Morris
Benjamin Carson School for Science and Medicine 2 Traditional Detroit
Detroit City West Side Academy for Leadership Development 2 Traditional Detroit
Detroit Prep 2 Charter Detroit
Frontier International Academy 2 Charter Detroit
Linden Charter Academy 2 Charter Flint
New Paradigm Loving Academy 2 Charter Detroit
Nolan Elementary-Middle School 2 Traditional Detroit
Old Redford Academy – High 2 Charter Detroit
St. Catherine of Siena Academy 2 Private Wixom
Trix Academy 2 Charter Detroit
University Preparatory Academy (PSAD) – High School 2 Charter Detroit
University Preparatory Science and Math (PSAD) Middle School 2 Charter Detroit
Webberville High School 2 Traditional Webberville
Western International High School 2 Traditional Detroit
Academy for Business and Technology Elementary 1 Charter Dearborn
ACTech High School 1 Traditional Ypsilanti
Advanced Technology Academy 1 Charter Dearborn
All Saints Catholic School 1 Private Canton
Alternative Educational Academy of Iosco County 1 Charter East Tawas
Ann L. Dolsen Elementary School 1 Traditional New Hudson
Arno Elementary School 1 Traditional Allen Park
Avondale High School 1 Traditional Auburn Hills
Avondale Middle School 1 Traditional Rochester Hills
Bendle Middle School 1 Traditional Burton
Botsford Elementary School 1 Traditional Livonia
Brenda Scott Academy for Theatre Arts 1 Traditional Detroit
Capstone Academy Charter School (SDA) – South Campus 1 Charter Detroit
Cesar Chavez Middle School 1 Charter Detroit
Chandler Park Academy – Middle School 1 Charter Harper Woods
Chelsea High School 1 Traditional Chelsea
Communication and Media Arts HS 1 Traditional Detroit
Conner Creek Academy East – Michigan Collegiate 1 Charter Warren
Crescent Academy Elementary 1 Charter Southfield
Crestwood High School 1 Traditional Dearborn Heights
Croswell-Lexington High School 1 Traditional Croswell
Dansville High School 1 Traditional Dansville
Dearborn High School 1 Traditional Dearborn
Detroit Achievement Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Collegiate High School 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Delta Preparatory Academy for Social Justice 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Edison Public School Academy – High School 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit Merit Charter Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Detroit School of Arts 1 Traditional Detroit
Dickinson East Elementary School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
East Arbor Charter Academy 1 Charter Ypsilanti
Eastpointe High School 1 Traditional Eastpointe
Ecorse Community High School 1 Traditional Ecorse
Escuela Avancemos 1 Charter Detroit
Fitzgerald Senior High School 1 Traditional Warren
George Washington Carver Elementary School 1 Charter Highland Park
Grand Ledge High School 1 Traditional Grand Ledge
Hamtramck High School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
Harrison High School 1 Traditional Farmington Hills
Henry Ford Academy 1 Charter Dearborn
Holy Family Regional School 1 Private Rochester
Hope of Detroit Academy – Elementary 1 Charter Detroit
Horizon High School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
Inkster Preparatory Academy 1 Charter Inkster
International Academy of Flint (K-12) 1 Charter Flint
Jackson Christian School 1 Private Jackson
Jackson ISD Local Based Special Education Programs 1 ISD School Jackson
Kensington Woods Schools 1 Charter Lakeland
Kosciuszko School 1 Traditional Hamtramck
Legacy Charter Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Lindemann Elementary School 1 Traditional Allen Park
Litchfield High School 1 Traditional Litchfield
Lowrey Middle School 1 Traditional Dearborn
Madison High School 1 Traditional Madison Heights
Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary-Middle School 1 Traditional Detroit
Maybury Elementary School 1 Traditional Detroit
Medicine and Community Health Academy at Cody 1 Traditional Detroit
Michigan Connections Academy 1 Charter Okemos
Multicultural Academy 1 Charter Ann Arbor
Munger Elementary-Middle School 1 Traditional Detroit
Murphy Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Noble Elementary-Middle School 1 Traditional Detroit
Northeast Elementary School 1 Traditional Jackson
Northridge Academy 1 Charter Flint
Novi High School 1 Traditional Novi
Novi Woods Elementary School 1 Traditional Novi
Osborn Academy of Mathematics 1 Traditional Detroit
Owosso High School 1 Traditional Owosso
Oxford Crossroads Day School 1 Traditional Oxford
Pershing High School 1 Traditional Detroit
Reach Charter Academy 1 Charter Roseville
Redford Service Learning Academy Campus 1 Charter Redford
Redford Union High School 1 Traditional Redford
Regent Park Scholars Charter Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Renaissance High School 1 Traditional Detroit
Royal Oak High School 1 Traditional Royal Oak
Salina Intermediate 4 – 8 1 Traditional Dearborn
Saline High School 1 Traditional Saline
South Lake High School 1 Traditional Saint Clair Shores
South Pointe Scholars Charter Academy 1 Charter Ypsilanti
Thornton Creek Elementary School 1 Traditional Novi
University Preparatory Academy (PSAD) – Elementary 1 Charter Detroit
University Preparatory Science and Math (PSAD) High School 1 Charter Detroit
University Yes Academy 1 Charter Detroit
Washtenaw International High School 1 ISD School Ypsilanti
Woodworth Middle School 1 Traditional Dearborn
Ypsilanti STEMM Middle College 1 Traditional Ypsilanti

Source: Michigan Department of Education

Detroit's future

A foundation, a district, and a university unite in Detroit to build one of the nation’s first ‘cradle to career’ schools

PHOTO: Ryan Southen, courtesy The Kresge Foundation
The former Bates Academy building on the campus of Marygrove College will be home to an innovative new "cradle to career" program.

The long-term vision for a new “cradle to career” school in Detroit is sweeping and ambitious.

When it’s up and running, the school coming to the campus of Marygrove College in northwest Detroit will be one of the first in the nation to serve everyone from babies to graduate students, simultaneously educating children, giving high school students the opportunity to earn college credits, and training teachers in an innovative new way.

The still-unnamed school, which was formally announced Thursday in a press conference at Marygrove College, is a joint effort between the University of Michigan, the Detroit Public Schools Community District and the Kresge Foundation.

It will be a very different kind of school — made possible with a $50 million investment from Kresge that the foundation says is the largest philanthropic investment ever made in a single Detroit neighborhood.

“I’m really excited about this on so many different levels,” said Superintendent Nikolai Vitti. “We’ve had examples of partnerships over the past year but this is probably one of the most defining partnerships we’ve had.”

The school is major coup for the district, which gets a chance to demonstrate its ability to launch cutting-edge new schools even as it works to stabilize a long-troubled school system. It’s also significant for Michigan, which is trying to reinvent teacher training in the United States, and marks an important moment for Kresge as the institution leads the way in both early childhood education and supporting the neighborhood near Marygrove. (Kresge is also a Chalkbeat funder).

Many of the details of the new school are still being worked out but plans are for the high school to open first, welcoming its first class of 50 to 100 ninth graders next fall. An early childhood center and the kindergarten will open in 2020, and new grades will be added each year until the school has approximately 1,000 students in the preschool and K-12 grades in 2029.

The school is the result of multiple initiatives, all coming together at once.  

One initiative came from the University of Michigan’s school of education, where Dean Elizabeth Moje has been trying to change the way teachers are trained.

Instead of having teachers do a few months of student teaching before being handed the keys to their own classrooms, Moje wanted to find a way to continue supporting new teachers through their first years in the classroom. She designed a new kind of school, modeled on the way teaching hospitals train doctors, where future educators would do internships and student teaching while in college or graduate school, then stay on for three more years as teaching “residents.” Residents would be full-time employees of the teaching school, paid like any other first-, second- or third-year teacher in the district, but they would continue to receive guidance from veteran “attending” teachers.

Moje’s vision called for faculty from across the university to get involved in the school in various ways, including people from the business and engineering schools, as well as its schools of social work and dentistry.

Moje took her idea to Vitti, who had arrived in Detroit last year making bold promises about transforming the district. Early in his administration, Vitti talked of giving every school in the district a distinct identity that could help attract new students.

The two agreed to partner on a new K-12 school. The district will operate the school, host student teachers from the university, then hire them for at least three years after they graduate. The university will run the residency program in the school. Though the district will make final hiring decisions, it will work with the university to recruit and hire teachers, making sure veteran educators are qualified to coach less experienced colleagues.

The district and the university will collaborate on developing a new engineering, urban planning, and business-oriented curriculum for the high school that will have a social change focus.

“It’s not just engineering with a math, science, tech lens,” Vitti said. “It’s about having a skill set to give back to Detroit as an engineer. … It’s thinking about what does this mean in the context of improving my community in a sustainable, long-term way?”

That high school will include a dual-enrollment program that will enable students to take college courses, possibly offered on campus by the University of Michigan or another college or university.

“We’re exploring connections with two- and four-year institutions,” Moje said. “The plan is to be able to get the kids to a place where by their junior and senior year, they’re taking college courses.”

Dual enrollment and early college programs that let high school students earn college credits are common in high schools across the country, but are currently only offered in a handful of Detroit schools.

The third crucial force behind the new school is the Kresge Foundation, which has been heavily involved with Marygrove College since 2016, when leaders at the storied college first contacted the foundation for help weathering a financial crisis.

Wendy Lewis Jackson, who is the managing director for Kresge’s Detroit program, said the foundation had been supporting the college’s efforts to reinvent itself as an educational anchor in the neighborhood even before the unexpected announcement last summer that the college would abruptly shutter its undergraduate programs while continuing to offer graduate programs. That announcement shocked and angered Margrove students and the surrounding community. It also left some buildings on the campus vacant.

By November, Kresge, the district, and the university were engaged in serious negotiations about creating the new school, Jackson said. It will occupy the building on Marygrove’s campus that was the original home of the Bates Academy, a selective district elementary school that’s now in a different location.

Kresge has also been focused in recent years on early childhood education. The foundation partnered last year with the W. K. Kellogg Foundation (also a Chalkbeat funder) on the Hope Starts Here initiative, a 10-year effort to improve the lives of young children in Detroit.

It seemed natural that the new program at Marygrove would include an early childhood center that would address many of the needs identified by Hope Starts Here effort including programs that support children’s physical and emotional health.

The center will serve babies, toddlers — even expectant mothers, Jackson said.

“It’s a comprehensive approach to early childhood that focuses on prenatal to age five and that will include comprehensive wraparound services focused on health and human services,” Jackson said. “How do you support the whole child and the family during these crucial years?”

The new early childhood center is one of three early childhood “hubs” that Kresge plans to build across Detroit in coming years. The hubs will not only serve young children in their communities, they will also aim to be resource to other preschools and programs in the neighborhoods, providing services such as a teacher training.

Kresge had already committed $25 million to building the three preschools as part of its commitment to Hope Starts Here.

The $50 million Kresge announced Thursday morning will go toward renovating buildings for the school and the early childhood center as well as operational support for the Marygrove Conservancy, the nonprofit agency that now owns the buildings on Marygrove’s 53-acre campus, Jackson said.

The early childhood center will be run by the nonprofit Starfish Family Services. It will have a mix of Head Start seats for children whose family incomes or circumstances qualify them for the free federal preschool program, as well as private seats that families with more means will pay for.

As children get older, graduates of the early childhood center will be largely guaranteed a place in the school’s kindergarten and upper grades.

“The idea is that it will be a seamless opportunity for children that starts in the early childhood center and moves into K-12 and beyond,” Jackson said. “The partners are all committed to making sure there are enough spaces available for students and families that live in the Marygrove community to be able access these educational options.”

Admissions to the high school will be competitive in the early years, with students being selected using a process similar to the one the district is now using to decide admissions to selective schools like Cass Technical High School.

But as the school grows, the high school will ultimately be filled mostly with students advancing from lower grades who will be chosen using a lottery system that will favor students who live in the surrounding neighborhoods. Plans call for 80 percent of kindergarten seats to be set aside for neighborhood children.

Some other details are still falling into place including the role that different University of Michigan departments will play.

Departments that could be involved include the schools of social work, nursing, dentistry, engineering, business, information, pharmacy, and architecture.

The business school has talked about offering courses like financial literacy to students or possibly working with students and the nearby community to help launch small businesses. The engineering school is exploring a number of possibilities, said Alec Gallimore, dean of the university’s engineering department.

“For us it could be anything from rocketry to video games,” he said. “This might be a really nice vehicle for some interesting collaborations.”

The School of Social Work not only plans to train some of its students to become school social workers in the new teaching school, but social work dean Lynn Videka said she is also hoping to raise private funds to pay for a social work residency program.

A residency would enable some graduates of her program to stay on for a year or two after earning their Masters in Social Work while they work toward fulfilling the requirements they need to become fully licensed social workers.

She sees this school as the perfect place to train professionals who will be coming through a new joint program on treating children who’ve experienced trauma that is now being created by the schools of social work, nursing and education.

“It’s a perfect setting in which to innovate with social work residents,” Videka said.