Growing pains

Latest Colorado test results provide long-awaited glimpse at how students are growing academically

Students at Mrachek Middle School in Aurora work to solve a math problem. (Photo by Nicholas Garcia, Chalkbeat)

Newly released state test results measuring students’ academic growth show strong progress for Denver Public Schools in English, slow going for Aurora Public Schools in math and a potentially alarming achievement gap for students with disabilities statewide.

Unlike earlier math and English results that showed students’ proficiency in meeting academic standards, Colorado’s growth report measures how much students learn year-to-year compared to their academic peers. The information, which is the primary component of a school’s and district’s quality rating, is often heralded as providing a more complete picture of how much students, especially those who are less likely to be proficient on state tests, are faring in school.

Put simply, the growth numbers provide a picture of how students are progressing and how fast compared to their peers, not taking into account where they are proficiency-wise.

“If we can take our most struggling kids as far as they can go, and the highest (performing) kids who don’t get the attention they deserve as far as they can go, we’re succeeding,” said Leslie Nichols, superintendent of the tiny rural Hinsdale School District in southwest Colorado. Hinsdale students posted higher growth rates in English than any other school district in the state.

In 2009, Colorado began using the growth measure, which relies on results from the state’s English and math standardized tests, to supplement basic achievement data.

A student’s growth percentile, which ranges from 1 to 99, indicates how that student’s performance changed over time, relative to students with similar performances on state assessments. School and district growth rates, which make up the greatest share in their quality ratings, are determined by the median growth score from all students in that school or district.

Tuesday’s release marks the end of a multi-year transition from the state’s previous testing system, TCAP, to its current system that includes PARCC English and math tests.

Because of the transition to new tests, Colorado neither released growth data nor school quality ratings last year. While hiccups remain, state education officials say confidence is growing in the exams and the data they provide. But members of the State Board of Education last week signaled they were prepared to upend the entire system all over again.

“We’re glad to have a growth metric again,” said Alyssa Pearson, the state education department’s associate commissioner for accountability. “We believe it provides a really important dimension to understand the quality of a school to go along with achievement.”

State growth results

The state’s median growth percentile is always about 50. Groups of students, schools and districts that have a percentile score higher than 50 are on average learning at a faster rate than their peers. Conversely, a percentile score lower than 50 means on average students are learning at a slower rate than their peers.

Hitting the 50 mark represents about a year’s worth of academic growth.

Like under the old system, growth gaps exist between the state’s white students from middle-income households and their more at-risk peers. The gap between students with disabilities, those with individualized education plans, and their non-disabled peers was the largest on the state’s English and math tests. The gap between boys and girls also grew, state officials acknowledged, with girls learning at a faster rate.

Only English language learners demonstrated equal growth to their native-English speaking peers on the state’s English test.


While state education officials called attention to the yawning gap between students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities, officials were hesitant to prescribe cause.

“I don’t know if we can jump to conclusions yet,” Pearson said. “But it’s important to make it visible.”

Similar gaps did not exist with other student groups, including English learners and low-income students.

Growth results from Colorado’s 10 largest school districts were mostly in line with the state’s. Denver Public Schools posted the highest growth rate on the English tests, while the Adams 12 Five Star district posted the highest growth rate on math tests.

Aurora Public Schools posted the lowest growth rate on the state’s math tests. APS also tied the Douglas County School District for the lowest rate on the state’s English tests.


Like previously released achievement data measuring how well students are meeting academic expectations, state officials cautioned growth results had less reliability at schools with low participation rates.

Tracking growth in high schools was made more difficult by state lawmakers eliminating PARCC 10th and 11th grade tests last school year, leaving only 9th grade growth data.

To get a full picture of high school performance requires looking at PARCC in 9th grade, the PSAT in 10th grade, the ACT in 11th grade (and starting this academic year, the SAT) and some measure of postsecondary readiness for 12th graders, said Chris Gibbons, CEO of the Denver-based STRIVE Prep charter school network.

“It’s important our view of the performance of a high school – of any school – is informed by the entirety of the school and not just a single grade,” Gibbons said.

Tracking growth in math in higher grades also poses challenges — and in some circumstances, it’s impossible. Starting in the seventh grade, students may take any one of five math tests. Students who took math tests two grade levels higher than their actual grade level did not have growth results in math, said Pearson, of the education department.

‘Critical data’

Nichols, superintendent of the Hinsdale County School District in Lake City, has long been awaiting the state’s release of growth data.

“I’ve been holding my breath for this release of data,” she said, adding that her schools usually has too few students to publicly disclose achievement results.

Hinsdale posted the state’s highest median growth percentile on the English test. On average, the 32 students who took the state’s English test learned at a quicker rate than 82 percent of their academic peers.

Nichols immediately credited her teachers.

“Their expertise in writing and reading instruction is obviously shining through in these results,” she said.

Unlike some other rural superintendents who have been vocal critics of the PARCC tests, Nichols said she and her school district value the critical data the multi-state tests provide.

“I really need that connection to the larger world of education,” she said, adding another change in assessment would prove difficult for her small school district. “I could not do [standards and testing] by myself. I could not write my own. I get tired of everyone saying local is better all the time. It’s OK to measure my kids against something a little bigger.”

Find your school and district’s growth rate

Correction: An earlier version of this article incorrectly reported the Adams 12 Five Star district’s growth rate on the math tests. It is 55, making it the highest growth rate of the 10 largest school district’s in the state. An earlier version reported Cherry Creek had the highest rate.

more digging

Kingsbury High added to list of Memphis schools under investigation for grade changing

PHOTO: Shelby County Schools
Kingsbury High School was added to a list of schools being investigated by an outside firm for improper grade changes. Here, Principal Terry Ross was featured in a Shelby County Schools video about a new school budget tool.

Another Memphis high school has been added to the list of schools being investigated to determine if they made improper changes to student grades.

Adding Kingsbury High School to seven others in Shelby County Schools will further delay the report initially expected to be released in mid-June.

But from what school board Chairwoman Shante Avant has heard so far, “there haven’t been any huge irregularities.”

“Nothing has surfaced that gives me pause at this point,” Avant told Chalkbeat on Thursday.

The accounting firm Dixon Hughes Goodman is conducting the investigation.

This comes about three weeks after a former Kingsbury teacher, Alesia Harris, told school board members that Principal Terry Ross instructed someone to change 17 student exam grades to 100 percent — against her wishes.

Shelby County Schools said the allegations were “inaccurate” and that the grade changes were a mistake that was self-reported by an employee.

“The school administration immediately reported, and the central office team took the necessary actions and promptly corrected the errors,” the district said in a statement.

Chalkbeat requested a copy of the district’s own initial investigation the day after Harris spoke at the board’s June meeting, but district officials said they likely would not have a response for Chalkbeat until July 27.

Harris said that no one from Dixon Hughes Goodman has contacted her regarding the investigation as of Thursday.

The firm’s investigation initially included seven schools. Kingsbury was not among them. Those seven schools are:

  • Kirby High
  • Raleigh-Egypt High
  • Bolton High
  • Westwood High
  • White Station High
  • Trezevant High
  • Memphis Virtual School

The firm’s first report found as many as 2,900 failing grades changed during four years at nine Memphis-area schools. At the request of the board, two schools were eliminated: one a charter managed by a nonprofit, and a school outside the district. The firm said at the time that further investigation was warranted to determine if the grade changes were legitimate.

The $145,000 investigation includes interviews with teachers and administrators, comparing teachers’ paper grade books to electronic versions, accompanying grade change forms, and inspecting policies and procedures for how school employees track and submit grades.

Since the controversy started last year, the district has restricted the number of employees authorized to make changes to a student’s report card or transcript, and also requires a monthly report from principals detailing any grade changes.

Silver Lining Playbook

Memphis’ youngest students show reading gains on 2018 state tests — and that’s a big deal

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
A student works on reading comprehension skills at Lucie E Campbell Elementary School in Memphis and Shelby County Schools.

Those working to improve early literacy rates in Shelby County Schools got a small morale boost Thursday as newly released scores show the district’s elementary school students improved their reading on 2018 state tests.

The percentage of Memphis elementary-age students considered proficient in reading rose by 3 points to almost one-fourth of the district’s children in grades 3 through 5. That’s still well below the state average, and Superintendent Dorsey Hopson said “we obviously have a long way to go.”

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Superintendent Dorsey Hopson has overseen Tennessee’s largest public school district since 2013.

Strengthening early literacy has been a priority for the Memphis district, which views better reading skills as crucial to predicting high school graduation and career success. To that end, Shelby County Schools has expanded access to pre-K programs, adjusted reading curriculum, and made investments in literacy training for teachers.

Hopson said the payoff on this year’s TNReady scores was a jump of almost 5 percentage points in third-grade reading proficiency.

“It was about five years ago when we really, really, really started pushing pre-K, and those pre-K kids are now in the third grade. I think that’s something that’s really positive,” Hopson said of the gains, adding that third-grade reading levels are an important indicator of future school performance.

TNReady scores for Shelby County Schools, which has a high concentration of low-performing schools and students living in poverty, were a mixed bag, as they were statewide.

Math scores went up in elementary, middle, and high schools in Tennessee’s largest district. But science scores went down across the board, and the percentage of high school students who scored proficient in reading dropped by 4 percentage points.

The three charts below illustrate, by subject, the percentages of students who performed on track or better in elementary, middle, and high schools within Shelby County Schools. The blue bars reflect the district’s most recent scores, the black bars show last year’s scores, and the yellow bars depict this year’s statewide averages.

Hopson said he was unsure how much the scores of older students — all of whom tested online — were affected by technical problems that hampered Tennessee’s return this year to computerized testing.

“From what people tell me, kids either didn’t try as hard in some instances or didn’t take it seriously,” Hopson told reporters. “We’ll never know what the real impact is, but we have to accept the data that came from these tests.”

But students in two of the district’s school improvement initiatives — the Innovation Zone and the Empowerment Zone — showed progress. “We’re going to double down on these strategies,” Hopson said of the extra investments and classroom supports.

In the state-run Achievement School District, or ASD, which oversees 30 low-performing schools in Memphis, grades 3 through 8 saw an uptick in scores in both reading and math. But high schoolers scored more than 3 percentage points lower in reading and also took a step back in science.

The ASD takes over schools in the state’s bottom 5 percent and assigns them to charter operators to improve. But in the five years that the ASD has been in Memphis, its scores have been mostly stagnant.

Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen said she and new ASD Superintendent Sharon Griffin are reviewing the new data to determine next steps.

“We are seeing some encouraging momentum shifts,” McQueen said.

Chalkbeat illustrator Sam Park contributed to this story.