Colorado

Invest in schools for better health

AURORA — Investments in education would do far more to drive down health care costs than simply reforming the health care system, an expert on social determinants of health said Friday during a visit to Colorado.

Dr. Steven Woolf

“If there was one thing that modern medicine could do to improve health outcomes, it would be to solve the high school dropout problem,” said Dr. Steven Woolf of the Center for Human Needs at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Surveys show most people believe that hospitals or access to doctors determines how healthy people are.

But, in fact, Woolf and his colleagues have found that social determinants ranging from education and poverty levels to jobs, neighborhoods and family support systems have a far bigger impact on a person’s health.

Health spending it completely out of whack with no more than 10 percent of more than 2 trillion dollars a year being spent on preventive or behavioral health care, Woolf said.

Critics of the Affordable Care Act, which the U.S. Supreme Court is now weighing, complain that the law focuses too much on providing health insurance to the uninsured rather than driving down health care costs.

Partnership
  • This story is one result of EdNews’ partnership with Solutions, a non-profit news website focused on health issues and staffed by professional journalists.

While policy experts have plenty of ideas for trimming health expenses, Woolf said their lens is too narrow.

They need to look outside the health care system and prevent people from getting sick and dying prematurely in the first place, he said, noting health disparities are profound in the U.S. with life expectancies for African-Americans far lower than those for whites and people who live in affluent areas.

Woolf and his colleagues have done studies showing that improving lifestyles, neighborhoods and education for blacks could save far more lives than medical breakthroughs.

“As someone interested in social factors, to me it’s a bit of a no-brainer to cut off the supply of disease that’s flowing into the system,” Woolf told about 100 health experts, doctors and students at the University of Colorado’s Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora.

In fact, a study last year in Health Affairs found that over the long term, encouraging healthier behaviors and improving environmental conditions dramatically saved lives while also driving down costs.

Woolf said he’s alarmed when he sees governors and state lawmakers cutting education funding because their Medicaid rolls are swelling and they feel they have no choice.

At a time when child poverty is at an all-time high in the U.S. and the economy is still sputtering, he thinks strengthening schools, reducing unemployment and investing in healthy neighborhoods could improve the health of millions while saving money over the long term.

Woolf and his colleagues modeled what would happen if every adult in the U.S. had some college education and found that higher educational attainment could save seven more lives than biomedical advances could save.

Studies in Virginia comparing some of the most affluent counties in the country to some of the poorest show that fixing disparities is complex and challenging.

“There’s no magic wand,” Woolf said.

It’s unclear whether people in the more affluent areas live longer because they have access to better health care, stronger anti-smoking bans, easier access to physical activity, better schools and higher education attainment or healthier neighborhoods.

But, “We know something is going on,” Woolf said.

While it’s difficult to pinpoint exactly what changes would bring the greatest declines in premature death, Woolf points to better schools as the place he would start.

“The only strategy that actually bends the costs curve and decreases spending is one that takes into account these social factors,” he said.

“Cutting back funding for education is only going to increase spending for medical costs in the long run.”

School safety

Hiring more security officers in Memphis after school shootings could have unintended consequences

PHOTO: Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post/Getty Images

Tennessee’s largest district, Shelby County Schools, is slated to add more school resource officers under the proposed budget for next school year.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson earmarked $2 million to hire 30 school resource officers in addition to the 98 already in some of its 150-plus schools. The school board is scheduled to vote on the budget Tuesday.

But an increase in law enforcement officers could have unintended consequences.

A new state law that bans local governments from refusing to cooperate with federal immigration officials could put school resource officers in an awkward position.

Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen recently reminded school personnel they are not obligated to release student information regarding immigration status. School resource officers employed by police or sheriff’s departments, however, do not answer to school districts. Shelby County Schools is still reviewing the law, but school board members have previously gone on the record emphasizing their commitment to protecting undocumented students.

“Right now we are just trying to get a better understanding of the law and the impact that it may have,” said Natalia Powers, a district spokeswoman.

Also, incidents of excessive force and racial bias toward black students have cropped up in recent years. Two white Memphis officers were fired in 2013 after hitting a black student and wrestling her to the ground because she was “yelling and cussing” on school grounds. And mothers of four elementary school students recently filed a lawsuit against a Murfreesboro officer who arrested them at school in 2016 for failing to break up a fight that occurred off-campus.

Just how common those incidents are in Memphis is unclear. In response to Chalkbeat’s query for the number and type of complaints in the last two school years, Shelby County Schools said it “does not have any documents responsive to this request.”

Currently, 38 school resource officers are sheriff’s deputies, and the rest are security officers hired by Shelby County Schools. The officers respond and work to prevent criminal activity in all high schools and middle schools, Hopson said. The 30 additional officers would augment staffing at some schools and for the first time, branch out to some elementary schools. Hopson said those decisions will be based on crime rates in surrounding neighborhoods and school incidents.

Hopson’s initial recommendation for more school resource officers was in response to the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, that killed 17 people and sparked a wave of student activism on school safety, including in Memphis.

Gov. Bill Haslam’s recent $30 million budget boost would allow school districts across Tennessee to hire more law enforcement officers or improve building security. Measures to arm some teachers with guns or outlaw certain types of guns have fallen flat.


For more on the role and history of school resource officers in Tennessee, read our five things to know.


Sheriff’s deputies and district security officers meet weekly, said Capt. Dallas Lavergne of the Shelby County Sheriff’s Office. When the Memphis Police Department pulled their officers out of school buildings following the merger of city and county school systems, the county Sheriff’s Office replaced them with deputies.

All deputy recruits go through school resource officer training, and those who are assigned to schools get additional annual training. In a 2013 review of police academies across the nation, Tennessee was cited as the only state that had specific training for officers deployed to schools.

call out

Our readers had a lot to say in 2017. Make your voice heard in 2018.

PHOTO: Chris Hill/Whitney Achievement School
Teacher Carl Schneider walks children home in 2015 as part of the after-school walking program at Whitney Achievement Elementary School in Memphis. This photograph went viral and inspired a First Person reflection from Schneider in 2017.

Last year, some of our most popular pieces came from readers who told their stories in a series that we call First Person.

For instance, Carl Schneider wrote about the 2015 viral photograph that showed him walking his students home from school in a low-income neighborhood of Memphis. His perspective on what got lost in the shuffle continues to draw thousands of readers.

First Person is also a platform to influence policy. Recent high school graduate Anisah Karim described the pressure she felt to apply to 100 colleges in the quest for millions of dollars in scholarships. Because of her piece, the school board in Memphis is reviewing the so-called “million-dollar scholar” culture at some high schools.

Do you have a story to tell or a point to make? In 2018, we want to give an even greater voice to students, parents, teachers, administrators, advocates and others who are trying to improve public education in Tennessee. We’re looking for essays of 500 to 750 words grounded in personal experience.

Whether your piece is finished or you just have an idea to discuss, drop a line to Community Editor Caroline Bauman at cbauman@chalkbeat.org.

But first, check out these top First Person pieces from Tennesseans in 2017:

My high school told me to apply to 100 colleges — and I almost lost myself in the process

“A counselor never tried to determine what the absolute best school for me would be. I wasted a lot of time, money and resources trying to figure that out. And I almost lost myself in the process.” —Anisah Karim     

Why I’m not anxious about where my kids go to school — but do worry about the segregation that surrounds us

“In fact, it will be a good thing for my boys to learn alongside children who are different from them in many ways — that is one advantage they will have that I did not, attending parochial schools in a lily-white suburb.” —Mary Jo Cramb

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

“Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.” —Grace Tatter

I went viral for walking my students home from school in Memphis. Here’s what got lost in the shuffle.

“When #blacklivesmatter is a controversial statement; when our black male students have a one in three chance of facing jail time; when kids in Memphis raised in the bottom fifth of the socioeconomic bracket have a 2.6 percent chance of climbing to the top fifth — our walking students home does not fix that, either.” —Carl Schneider

I think traditional public schools are the backbone of democracy. My child attends a charter school. Let’s talk.

“It was a complicated choice to make. The dialogue around school choice in Nashville, though, doesn’t often include much nuance — or many voices of parents like me.” —Aidan Hoyal

I grew up near Charlottesville and got a misleading education about Civil War history. Students deserve better.

“In my classroom discussions, the impetus for the Civil War was resigned to a debate over the balance of power between federal and state governments. Slavery was taught as a footnote to the cause of the war.” —Laura Faith Kebede