First Person

Slow and steady best on revamped evaluations

Kristin Klopfenstein is the executive director of the Education Innovation Institute at the University of Northern Colorado.

I’m often struck by the potential for progress – and for detriment – in the national movement to tie educator evaluations to student performance data. Evaluations should be the impetus for ongoing conversations and activities that lead teachers and principals to improve. Instead, unfortunately, they often become mechanical compliance exercises that can easily become punitive.

Anyone who advocates basing some portion of a teacher’s job evaluations on student performance is bound to have been sobered by early reports from some cities and states that are well along in the process of designing and rolling out such approaches. Several recent news stories from places like Chicago, Tennessee and New York reveal myriad concerns, ranging from worries by teachers about fair application of the new criteria to frustrations by principals about inadequate training, lack of confidence in the reliability of test scores and cascades of rules that reduce them to process-driven grinds.

Another theme in these stories is that some jurisdictions apparently rushed to put these complex, radically different evaluation systems in place without testing them adequately or making sure that people who would be most affected understood the new criteria. All of these factors decrease the likelihood that student growth-based evaluation systems will, in practice, empower educators or improve student achievement.

Working in concert with teachers is the best approach

Resistance to change isn’t surprising. Major change is scary, and these changes could force educators to rethink expectations about their livelihoods and professional identities. History also explains some of the reactions. Too often, accountability and other reforms have been done to teachers instead of in concert with them in a shared effort to improve instruction and learning.

One thing that struck me about these stories was that principals were often as outspoken as teachers, which is unusual. “Principals don’t revolt,” says one principal quoted in a New York Times story about opposition to the use of student test scores in teacher and principal evaluations.

Against this backdrop, the Colorado Legacy Foundation has produced some documents and guides to help districts that are ready to start building evaluation models for SB 10-191, Colorado’s educator effectiveness bill, avoid some major landmines.

What I like best about these guides is that they are based on the experiences of three districts – Brighton, Eagle, and Harrison – that overhauled their evaluation systems before 191 was on the books. The guides and case studies aren’t blueprints; superintendents and boards will have to go to the districts to get enough detail to understand how the systems work.

But they do offer solid advice born from experience that could raise the odds for buy-in. Nor do the guides answer some basic questions such as whether and how much the three districts will have to adapt their hard-won programs to work with 191. What they do offer is reassurance that peers have jumped off this ledge and survived. The three systems differ from one another, giving readers a range of options to consider. But in all three it is clear that evaluations became a more central and more frequent activity for both teachers and principals.

Learning from early adopters’ mistakes

One appealing aspect of these documents is that they are fairly candid about mistakes districts made. For example, Eagle heavily revised its system after educators complained that the model didn’t work well for teachers whose subjects weren’t covered by standardized tests and that the algorithms driving the plan were not explained clearly.

The documents offer several take-away lessons such as the importance of involving stakeholders early and often, making sure teachers understand how the program works, and building systems that not only evaluate performance but support teachers while they work to improve.

Any complex new approach to something as closely tied to people’s sense of self-worth as a job evaluation demands careful, thoughtful, collaborative planning and testing. Along these lines, we must ensure that the intent of SB-191 — to facilitate the conversations and collaboration among teachers and administrators that lead to improved student achievement — survives whatever happens next.

If SB-191 becomes more about compliance and paper shuffling than about teacher and leader development, the experiment will have failed in Colorado. At this point, the legislation and rules for SB-191 are only words. It is now up to the state and the districts to put meat on the bones of 191 as a system that helps schools create a collaborative professional climate and not just another top-down compliance checklist.

Too much focus on process runs the risk of letting people avoid digging into difficult tasks, such as thoughtful, well-informed conversations about ways to keep growing and improving – conversations that even the most accomplished professionals need.

On the other hand, full implementation may be slowed while everyone waits for the final appellate ruling on the Lobato case , and that may buy more time for careful preparation.

First Person

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

PHOTO: Marta W. Aldrich
Grace Tatter covers a press conference at the Tennessee State Capitol in 2015.

For three years, I covered the Statehouse for Chalkbeat Tennessee, reporting on how policies from Nashville trickled down into more than 1,800 public schools across the state.

Now I’m starting back to school myself, pursuing graduate studies aimed at helping me to become a better education journalist. I’m taking with me six things I learned on the job about public education in Tennessee.

1. Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.

I heard from hundreds of parents, educators, and students who were passionate about what’s happening — good and bad — inside of schools. I covered crowded school board meetings and regularly scrambled for an open seat at legislative hearings where parents had filled the room after driving since dawn to beat the opening gavel. Not incidentally, those parents usually came from communities with the “worst” schools and the lowest test scores. While many disagreements exist about the best way to run schools, there is no shortage of people, particularly parents and educators, who care.

2. Tennessee has one of the most fascinating education stories in America.

I’ve had a front-row seat to massive changes in K-12 education under reforms ushered in by Race to the Top — an overhaul being tracked closely well beyond the state’s borders. But the national interest and import doesn’t end with changes stemming from the $500 million federal award. Tennessee is home to some of the nation’s premier education researchers, making its classrooms laboratories for new ideas about pre-K, school turnaround, and literacy instruction, just to name a few. And at the legislature, more lobbyists are devoted to education than to most any other cause. A lot of eyes are on Tennessee schools.

3. The education community is not as divided as it looks.

During the course of just a few years, I watched state lawmakers change their positions on accountability and school vouchers. I witnessed “anti-charter” activists praise charter leaders for their work. I chronicled task force meetings where state leaders who were committed to standardized testing found middle ground with classroom educators concerned that it’s gone too far. In short, a lot of people listened to each other and changed their minds. Watching such consensus-building reminded me that, while there are no simple debates about education, there is a widespread commitment to making it better.

4. Money matters.

Even when stories don’t seem to be about money, they usually are. How much money is being spent on testing, teacher salaries, school discipline reform? How much should be available for wraparound services? Why do some schools have more money than others? Is there enough to go around? Tennessee leaders have steadily upped public education spending, but the state still invests less than most other states, and the disparities among districts are gaping. That’s why more than a handful of school districts are battling with the state in court. Conversations about money are inextricable from conversations about improving schools.

5. Race is a significant education issue, but few leaders are willing to have that conversation.

More than 60 years after Brown v. Board of Education, Tennessee’s schools are largely racially segregated. Yet most policymakers tread lightly, if ever, into conversations about achieving real racial integration. And in many cases — such as a 2011 law enabling mostly white suburban Shelby County towns to secede from the mostly black Memphis district — they’ve actually gone backwards. Then there’s the achievement data. The annual release of test scores unleashes a flurry of conversation around the racial achievement gap. But the other 11 months of the year, I heard little about whether state and local policies are closing those gaps — or contributing to them — or the historical reasons why the gaps exist in the first place. To be sure, state leadership is trying to address some of Tennessee’s shortcomings. For example, the State Department of Education has launched modestly funded initiatives to recruit more teachers of color. But often, race and racism are the elephants in the room.

6. Still, there’s lots to celebrate.

If there were unlimited hours in the day, I could have written thousands of stories about what’s going right in public education. Every day, I received story ideas about collaborations with NASA in Oak Ridge, high school trips to Europe from Memphis, gourmet school lunches in Tullahoma, and learning partnerships with the Nashville Zoo. Even in schools with the steepest challenges, they were stories that inspire happiness and hope. They certainly inspired me.

Grace Tatter graduated from public schools in Winston-Salem, N.C., and received her bachelor’s degree in history from the University of North Carolina. She’s now pursuing a master’s degree in specialized studies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

First Person

I’m a Houston geography teacher. This is my plan for our first day back — as soon as it arrives

PHOTO: Creative Commons / Texas Military Department
Texas National Guard soldiers arrive in Houston, Texas to aid citizens in heavily flooded areas from the storms of Hurricane Harvey.

Hurricane Harvey has upended so many things here in Houston, where I am starting my third year as a teacher. One of them is the lesson I am planning for the first day of school — as soon as it arrives.

This upheaval is nothing compared to what people across the city have faced, including my students, who have been sending me photos of evacuation boats going past their houses.

But it is fundamental to the task of being a teacher at a time of crisis. As an A.P. Human Geography teacher, my job is to help students make connections between the geography concepts we are learning in class and their real lives: Does Houston look like the models of urban development we study? Does their family history include a migration?

Before the storm, my thinking went like this: I am white and was born in England and most of my students are Hispanic, many with parents who were born in other countries. I was excited for us to share and compare our different stories. My students last year were shocked and fascinated when they discovered that my white, middle-aged father who is a university professor was applying for a green card, just as many of their family members were.

Now, Hurricane Harvey has underlined for me the importance of those real-world connections. As I looked at the photos from my students, I was struck by how geography concepts can affect us in very real — even life-threatening — ways.

I had planned to teach a lesson at the end of the year about how urbanization affects the environment. The lesson looks at how urbanization can exacerbate flooding: for example, how paving over grassy areas can increase the speed with which rain reaches the bayous, causing the water levels to rise faster. I would then have students evaluate different policies cities can adopt to mitigate that risk, such as encouraging the building on brownfield rather than greenfield sites and passing laws to protect farmland — options that have significant benefits but also significant costs.

I have decided to move this lesson up in the curriculum and teach it when we have school again. School is scheduled to start again on Tuesday, though at this stage everything is provisional, as each hour we find out about more families that have had their homes destroyed by the rising waters. It is still unclear how all our staff, let alone students, will get to school.

I am worried that the lesson could re-traumatize students who have experienced so much trauma in the past few days. I know I will need to make an active effort to make students feel comfortable stepping into the hall if they are feeling overwhelmed. However, my experiences with the recent presidential election make me think that this lesson is exactly what some students might need.

After the election, many students were genuinely confused about what had happened. One question in particular was on their minds: How you can you win the popular vote but not the election? We talked through the Electoral College together, and having clarity about what had happened and why it happened seemed to give them a firmer foundation to build on as they processed their emotions. I am hopeful that teaching about flooding will help ground them in a similar way.

This lesson about flooding was once simply another lesson in the curriculum, but now it has taken on a new urgency. In moments of disaster, it is easy to feel powerless; I certainly could not help the people I saw posting on Facebook that they were been on hold with 911 for hours while standing on their roofs.

Yet teachers have a unique power — the power to shape the minds of future generations to solve the problems that we face. Houston’s location means that it will always be susceptible to flooding. But by teaching about the flood I hope I can play a small role in helping our city avoid repeating some of the tragic scenes I witnessed this week.

Alex McNaughton teaches history and geography at YES Prep Southeast in Houston.

Looking to help? YES Prep is collecting donations to support its students and their families. Houston ISD and KIPP Houston are also soliciting donations for their students.