Who Is In Charge

Lobato 8/25: Money and scores

“There’s no consistent relationship between school resources and school achievement,” Hoover Institution scholar Eric Hanushek testified Thursday in the Lobato v. State school funding case.

Hanushek, a nationally known researcher on the economics of education, is the key expert witness for the state as it seeks to counter the plaintiffs’ claim that Colorado’s school funding system doesn’t adequately meet the education requirements of the state constitution.

Questioned by Senior Assistant Attorney General Carey Markel, Hanushek added, “Money certainly matters; you can’t run a school without money.” But, he added, “How you spend money is more important than how much … In general, you can’t expect any large achievement gains without changing the way you spend.”

Lobato v. State illustrationHanushek said that per-pupil U.S. education spending has increased four-fold since 1960 but that student achievement is at about the same level as in 1970.

“There’s been no gain in student achievement simply by doing what we’ve been doing with more money.”

Hanushek has testified in nearly 20 states as an expert witness for state governments defending school funding lawsuits. Other points he made in testimony Thursday included:

Class size: It doesn’t have an impact on achievement beyond kindergarten.

Master’s degrees for teachers: “None of the best studies say graduate education has an effect.”

Teacher experience and quality: “After the first couple of years, there’s no impact of experience.” He also said student achievement could be improved significantly if the least-effective 5 to 8 percent of teachers were removed from classrooms and replaced merely with “average” teachers.

“Costing out” studies: “They’re basically political documents. … I think they’re all unreliable and invalid.” He said at another point, “I don’t believe it’s possible scientifically” to do a valid cost study of educational adequacy. Hanushek also maintained that court decisions requiring additional school funding in other states haven’t increased student achievement.

He discussed at length spending increases and test scores in New Jersey and Wyoming, both states where courts ordered increased school spending. His assertions were disputed in great detail by plaintiffs’ attorneys on cross-examination, including one of his slides, which read: “Wyoming is very similar to Colorado in population and schools.”

Hanushek also analyzed some Colorado education data and drew conclusions, including:

  • “Very hopeful moves Colorado has made” include the Colorado Achievement Plan for Kids, the new accountability system and the educator effectiveness law.
  • As with the nation, there’s no correlation between different spending levels and student achievement. And, “Nobody knows the cost of an adequate education in Colorado.”
  • Colorado districts with higher percentages of at-risk students generally have higher per-pupil funding.
Eric Hanushek
Eric Hanushek

To improve Colorado schools, Hanushek said, the state needs to focus on student achievement, reward districts and teachers who are producing higher achievement, rely on local decision making, provide choice and have a good data system.

“It turns out Colorado is doing a lot of that already, or it’s moving in that direction,” he said. “Colorado does relatively well in the nation, but the nation doesn’t do well internationally” in comparisons of students achievement.

Hanushek’s testimony was part of the state’s attempt to counter views expressed by plaintiffs’ expert witnesses, including Linda Darling-Hammond of Stanford, Henry Levin of Columbia, Bruce Baker of Rutgers and Justin Silverstein of Augenblick, Palaich and Associates. (Links above will take you to stories about each witness’ testimony.)

The three hours of aggressive cross-examination by plaintiffs’ lawyers Kenzo Kawanabe and David Hinojosa included several questions about conflicts between Hanushek’s research and that of other scholars. They also repeatedly challenged him on his central conclusion that more funding doesn’t drive achievement.

Kristin Waters also on the stand

To start the day’s testimony, Markel led Denver Public Schools principal Kristin Waters through a detailed history of her work at Bruce Randolph School, a school that won autonomy from district and union rules in its quest for reform, inspiring the Innovation Schools Act of 2008. Randolph is often cited as an example of promising school reform.

Markel repeatedly steered Waters, now principal of Denver’s South High School, back to questions about whether extra resources were available for Randolph’s transformation and whether additional resources are needed to increase student achievement.

Waters gave various versions of the answer “no,” saying such things as “I don’t believe it’s the money that makes the difference. … It’s more of a time challenge than it is a resource or a money challenge. … The money piece isn’t what’s going to solve the issue” of low achievement.

On cross-examination, plaintiffs’ lawyers worked to establish that Waters’ views are based on her urban and Denver experience and aren’t applicable to all schools.

Plaintiff-intervenors’ lawyer Marisa Bono asked if Waters agreed that innovation status is not a universal fix for schools, and Waters said, “That is my belief.”

Other cross-examination questions highlighted Bruce Randolph’s low CSAP and ACT scores, although Randolph has shown academic growth.

Highlights of the day

TONE: It was another testy day, and the longest of the trial to date.

QUOTE: “I promise that we won’t go through every article you’ve published,” said Markel to Hanushek, as she led him through 45 minutes of testimony about his resume and lengthy list of books and articles. Lawyers for both sides love to linger over the qualifications of their expert witnesses.

MANEUVERING: Expert witnesses speak at a fairly broad level, and lawyers on cross-exam ask about a lot of very detailed things that the witnesses don’t know. Kawanabe and Hinojosa played that game at length with Hanushek, and also were on the attack in other ways, occasionally interrupting his answers or demanding “yes or no” answers.

At one point, Kawanabe asked Hanushek about his fee, which the professor said was $375 an hour or “on the order of $50,000” for the Lobato case.

“Have you made more than a million dollars” on all the expert testimony for states, Kawanabe asked.

“I’ve never tried to sum that up,” Hanushek replied.

DOCUMENTS: Bruce Randolph, Waters’ former school, currently is accredited with an improvement plan. It does not meet the state’s academic achievement indicator, meets indicators for student growth and growth gaps and its students are “approaching” postsecondary and workforce readiness. Read the school’s three-year performance framework and its improvement plan.

UPCOMING: Friday’s witness list for the state is an interesting mix, including outspoken former education Commissioner Bill Moloney, Democratic State Board of Education member Angelika Schroeder and Nina Lopez, a former top Department of Education official who recently joined the Colorado Legacy Foundation.

reading list

These 12 stories help define Tom Boasberg’s tenure leading Denver’s schools

PHOTO: Chalkbeat File Photo
Denver Public Schools Superintendent Tom Boasberg, center, with Denver Mayor Michael Hancock and a DPS student on the opening day of school in 2011.

Tom Boasberg, who today announced his plans to step down as Denver’s schools superintendent, leaves behind nearly a decade of high-profile debates and decisions that reshaped the city’s public school system and made plenty of local and national headlines.

For years, Boasberg’s tenure featured sharp political divides among the city’s school board. His school improvement efforts, notably in the city’s Far Northeast neighborhood, garnered mixed results for students. And his embrace of nontraditional school management, the so-called “portfolio model,” has earned him national praise.

Here’s a chronological look back at a dozen stories that defined his nearly decade of leading Denver Public Schools.

Denver Public Schools “therapy” forges progress

In 2009, at a daylong meeting attended by Denver school board members, Boasberg, and a therapist, the superintendent and the board appeared to forge closer ties after a divisive school board election. The session at the tony Broadmoor Hotel included coaching board members and Boasberg through some difficult conversations about their respective roles – and Boasberg’s job security.

More shared campuses, still controversial

One of the first waves of school reform policies the district embraced was locating multiple schools on one campus. While Boasberg didn’t start the district’s practice of placing charter and district-run schools on shared sites, his administration did continue it — much to the dismay of some schools’ staff and community members.

Boasberg’s school improvement efforts in Far Northeast Denver take off

One of the superintendent’s earliest — and most ambitious — school turnaround strategies was to overhaul schools in the city’s Far Northeast neighborhood. The neighborhood, which serves a majority of black and Latino students, had the highest concentration of the city’s lowest-performing schools.

Boasberg: Manual’s shortcomings are my responsibility

No school in Denver has been subject to more improvement efforts — by multiple superintendents — than storied Manual High School. After some minor improvements, the school took a turn for the worse and by 2014 was once again the city’s lowest-performing school. After dismissing the school’s principal, Boasberg took ownership of the school’s downfall.

Denver Public Schools ‘ahead of the curve’ with proposed facilities policy

After years of opening and closing numerous schools, DPS began to formalize the process. One of its first stabs at systematizing its “portfolio model” was a facilities policy. The policy, which applies to both charter and district schools, would tie placement decisions to schools’ academic performance, student enrollment patterns, and other district priorities.

Why Denver Superintendent Tom Boasberg landed an unprecedented six-month break

In January of 2016, Boasberg took off for six months with his family for a trip to Latin America. The uncommon stability of Denver Public Schools made his respite possible, observers said.

Denver Superintendent Tom Boasberg’s vision for giving more power to schools, annotated

Denver Public Schools has long strived to be more decentralized and less top-down. More than a year after the school board granted school leaders more autonomy, Boasberg penned a document detailing how he envisions the district should function under that philosophy. Here we explain and provide context for Boasberg’s memo.

Efforts to better integrate Denver middle schools proving tough, analysis finds

One way Boasberg and Denver Public Schools attempted to fight school segregation was the creation of “enrollment zones.” The idea was that extending boundaries and asking students to choose from several schools within them would increase integration in a gentrifying city where many neighborhoods are segregated. But there was little evidence of success six years in.

Inside the rocky rollout of Denver Public Schools’ new school closure policy

Another policy Boasberg and the Denver school board created to guide its portfolio strategy was the “School Performance Compact.” Boasberg insisted the school closure policy was not the leading strategy to try to achieve the district’s improvement goals. The policy, he said, took a back seat to initiatives such as better coaching for teachers and improved reading instruction for young students. Instead, Boasberg described the policy as “a little bit of a safety mechanism” to be used when “these strategies don’t work and where over a period of time, kids are showing such low growth that we need to have a more significant intervention.”

Denver Public Schools retooling equity measure, presses forward on scoring schools

Denver’s well-established – and sometimes controversial – school rating system got an update in 2017 when the district added a new “equity measure.” Despite some pushback from school leaders, Boasberg and the district pushed forward with scoring schools based on how well they closed the gap between students who performed well on state tests (usually white and middle-class) and those who didn’t (usually black and Latino from low-income homes.)

Denver schools chief: Removing DACA protections for undocumented immigrants would be ‘catastrophic’

Boasberg took on a new role in the Trump era. The typically reserved superintendent regularly sought to reassure students, parents, and his own employees that he would protect them from any apparent overreach by the new administration. He also regularly spoke out in favor of Congress protecting the so-called Dreamers, undocumented immigrants who were brought to the U.S. as children. “Our schools and our community are strengthened by our city’s rich diversity and open arms,” Boasberg said. “The DACA program has helped bring wonderfully talented and critically needed teachers to our classrooms and has provided peace of mind and legal status to thousands of immigrant children and families who make our city and our schools great.”

Large achievement gaps in Denver highlighted by new national test data

Despite years of change, Denver’s achievement gap has barely budged. That fact was reinforced earlier this year after DPS received its scores from the tests known as “the nation’s report card.” At the time Boasberg said the latest scores confirmed the district needed to continue to focus on closing its gaps. He repeated his concern about the gaps when he discussed his exit with Chalkbeat.

End of an era

Denver superintendent Tom Boasberg is stepping down after nearly 10 years

PHOTO: RJ Sangosti/The Denver Post
Denver Public School's Superintendent Tom Boasberg eats lunch with students at Cowell Elementary's Summer SLAM Program in 2016. (Photo by RJ Sangosti/The Denver Post)

Tom Boasberg, who has earned a national profile as Denver schools superintendent, is stepping down.

Boasberg announced Tuesday he’s leaving his post after an unusually long tenure – nearly 10 years at the helm of Denver Public Schools, a 92,600-student urban district nationally known for its innovative approaches to school improvement.

Boasberg will continue to serve for 90 days, as his contract with the district requires. The Denver school board will be tasked with choosing his successor. Boasberg, who is earning $242,125 as superintendent this year, said he does not have another job lined up.

“It’s been an extraordinarily difficult decision because I love this place, I am extraordinarily committed to our work and our mission, and I believe in it with all of my heart and soul,” Boasberg said in an interview Monday, a day before the public announcement. “I am going to miss it terribly, and I also know this is the right time for me and my family.”

Boasberg, 52, and his wife have three children, ages 17, 15, and 14. He said his decision was personal and not driven by the politics of the district. His oldest daughter, Nola, graduated from high school this year – a milestone he said made him stop and think about his commitments to his family, as well as his commitments to the district and to Denver students.

“I think we have lots of momentum and we’re in a strong place,” Boasberg said. Ultimately, he said his choice was born of a “deep desire to spend more family time with my kids before they’re all gone, and a very strong confidence in our board of education, our leaders in the Denver Public Schools, and our ability to have a successful transition.”

He did not offer an opinion on who should succeed him. When he took a six-month sabbatical in 2016 to live abroad with his family, the board appointed longtime district administrator Susana Cordova as acting superintendent. Cordova has since been named deputy superintendent.

The school board met Tuesday in a non-public executive session to discuss choosing a new superintendent, and board President Anne Rowe said it will meet again in executive session on Wednesday. She said board members are still working out the process and will host a public meeting soon “to provide great clarity on how the board will go forward.”

“We understand that this is singularly the most important role we have,” Rowe said.

Parents, community members, and teachers union leaders said they hope the process is an open one that includes robust public input. Transparency and trust are issues the district has long struggled with, and the school board flagged community engagement as an area for improvement in Boasberg’s most recent performance evaluation.

Parent Brandon Pryor, who is part of a group called Our Voice, Our Schools that has been critical of the district, said he is excited by the opportunity for change but also “a bit concerned and skeptical” about how a replacement will be chosen.

“I would like to see some of the stakeholders that have been at the forefront of this fight from each community be invited to the table,” he said.

The makeup of the seven-member Denver school board has shifted several times during Boasberg’s tenure, but he has always enjoyed the backing of a majority of members – a factor that has been key in advancing his vision. In the most recent election last year, however, two candidates critical of the district’s aggressive improvement strategies and its growing number of charter schools won seats on the board, breaking up what had been unanimous support.

But Boasberg said the latest political shift didn’t play a role in his decision. He called the board “strong” and “committed,” and he said he’s confident its members will continue the district’s momentum when he’s gone. Over the past 10 years, Denver Public Schools has seen its enrollment grow, its test scores improve, and its graduation rate increase.

Boasberg said he’s proudest of the fact that the numbers of black and Latino students graduating high school and going to college has nearly doubled in that time. In 2006, 1,706 black and Latino students graduated high school, according to the district. In 2017, 3,148 did.

However, the graduation rates and test scores of students of color and those from low-income families continue to lag behind the scores of white and affluent students. That has fueled sharp criticism in a district where 76 percent of the population is made up of students of color, and 67 percent of students qualify for free or reduced-price lunch, an indicator of poverty.

Closing those gaps continues to be the district’s biggest challenge, Boasberg said.

“We’ve been absolutely focused on that – and our data says we haven’t done enough, and we need to do more, and we need to do better,” he said. “For my successor, and likely my successor’s successor, that will be the No. 1 challenge.”

Boasberg joined Denver Public Schools in 2007 when he left a job as a senior telecommunications executive at Level 3 Communications in Broomfield to become the district’s chief operating officer under then-Superintendent Michael Bennet, a childhood friend of his.

At that time, Bennet was two years into a plan to radically transform the district’s low-performing schools. When Bennet was tapped in January 2009 to fill an empty U.S. Senate seat, the Denver school board quickly decided that Boasberg should replace him as superintendent and continue the reforms underway, which included closing or replacing struggling schools.

Boasberg has refined those strategies and added plenty of his own. He has made Denver Public Schools into a national model whose tactics are revered by some and criticized by others. The latter group includes some local parent organizations and often the Denver teachers union.

The strategies the district has deployed include:

• A policy that lays out strict criteria for when low-performing schools should be closed or replaced. The rollout of this policy was rocky, and the school board recently announced it’s suspending the policy for a year while it conducts a community-wide “listening tour.”

• Creating a common enrollment system that allows families to use a single form to request to attend any district-run or charter school in Denver. The district also shares tax revenue with its independently run charter schools and allows charters to compete for space in district buildings. That has led to many charters sharing campuses with district-run schools, an arrangement that has at times sparked backlash from students and parents.

• Giving schools more freedom from district rules. This has taken several forms, including embracing a state law that allows district-run schools to be designated as “innovation schools” and freed from certain rules and regulations. The district also recently expanded its experiment with “innovation zones,” which are groups of schools with even more financial and organizational freedom. In addition, every district-run school may choose its own curriculum, teacher training programs, and school-based testing regimens.

• Allowing teachers to take on leadership roles. The district’s biggest initiative is its “teacher leadership and collaboration” program, which designates teachers in nearly every district-run school who spend part of their day teaching students and another part observing other teachers, providing feedback, and helping them plan lessons.

“That investment in people is by far the most important factor in our success,” Boasberg said.

Reflecting on his tenure, he said Denver Public Schools “is in a fundamentally different and better place” today than it was when he became chief of Colorado’s largest school district.

Asked about his best day on the job, Boasberg recalled a pair of championship basketball games in which the district’s two biggest high schools, East and South, were competing for the top place in their respective divisions.

The South team’s game was first. Boasberg, who as a young man played semi-pro basketball overseas, was there in the stands. In the waning seconds of the game, South lost in what Boasberg described as “an absolute heartbreaker.” But it was what happened next that still makes him smile when he thinks of it.

“Both the South and the East cheering sections starting chanting, ‘D-P-S,’” Boasberg said. “Not South. Not East. But DPS. And seeing our kids, this extraordinary diversity of both the schools and their sense of pride and joy. … It was an amazing moment.”